1. Which is not a key idea in Holden's Energy flow, in An Introduction to physical geography and the environment?
- Bioaccumulation can occur whereby less desirable materials may also be taken up and stored if they too are locally bioavailable
- Population cycle- where populations increase and decrease in size over prolonged periods of times due to various features that occur every so often.
- Biochemical cycles involve links with the local variations in geology and climate. For example, raining will wash the phosphorus off rocks into lakes and soils etc making it become available for producers within local food chains to take it up
- Energy and nutrient flows: the life forms initially involved in the process of making food from the sun via photosynthesis are known as producers or autotrophs, found at the first lowest trophic level
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2. Which is not a key idea of Holden's Dispersal and Distribution in An Introduction to the physical geography and the environment?
- Temporal patterns and distributions: geological time, post glacial change, migratory patterns and alien introduction
- Competition always had significant effects on distribution patterns, on relative abundances, and on diversity, consistent with the notion that competition has strong effects on community structure
- Global scale patterns of species distribution: climate, geological factors and ecological factors.
3. Which is not a key feature of Thompson's Ice core evidence for climate change in the Tropics?
- The tropical and subtropical ice core records may potentially yield long annual to millennial-scale records of El Nin8o-Southern Oscillation events and monsoon variability and thus provide important insights into the magnitude and freq. of events
- The characteristics of the current warming will be examined and compared to earlier periods of climatic warming such as the transition from the last glacial into the current interglacial as well as other periods within the Holocene.
- Tropical climate was cooler and more variable during the last glacial cycle and has renewed current interest in the tropical water vapour cycle. The new tropical ice core records raise additional questions about our understanding of the role of the t
- Hypothesize that the differences in animal resources between the northern and southern Sahara during the early Holocene influenced the way it was peopled by humans
- Much of the climatic activity of significance to humanity, such as variations in the occurrence and intensity of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation and monsoons, are largely connected to lower latitudes
4. Which is not a feature of Shuman's Paleoclimate Reconstruction?
- Quantitative- 1) Tree rings 2) paleoclimate conditions 3) geochemical records 4) physical measurements of temperature
- The accumulation of certain elements and isotopes within glaciers, sediments, and the fossil remains of organisms; or the deposition of sediment in glacial moraines, lakes, and oceans.
- Root cause of the Sahelian desiccation is natural in origin and may lie in the low-frequency and aperiodic response of the coupled ocean atmosphere system to random forcing, perhaps exaggerated in part by the potential for large-scale land cover atmo
- Qualitative: eg: Louis Agassiz (1840) recognized that hills and ridges of unconsolidated boulders, cobbles, and fine sediment, striations on smoothly worn bedrock and erratic boulders, among other features, represented the deposits of glaciers
- Proxies: Evidence of past climate conditions come from many different sources
5. Which is not a feature of Anderson's Global environments through the Quaternary?
- Human coming of age in the quaternary: Although modern societies are quite capable of shaping their immediate environment to suit their needs, for more than 90% of human history, the environment has been shaping us
- Changes in climate, sea levels, vegetation belts, animal populations, soils and landforms.in the last 20,000 years alone, and humans, as already noted, have been in existence one hundred times longer than that
- Permanently frozen ground have retreated from extensive areas of Europe, the rainforest expanded, desert sand fields have advanced and retreated, inland lakes have flooded and shrunk and many of the finest mammals have perished in the catastrophe
- Explaining tertiary climates: local and global scales. Britain was at a lower latitude than today, being 10-12’ further south in the Palaeocene
- Environments of the tertiary: the north Atlantic region in the early tertiary may have been characterised by a widespread tropical moist forest type.
- The tertiary/Quaternary transition: the Quaternary has long been distinguished from the preceding tertiary by global cooling associated with the expansion of glaciers, particularly across high to mid latitude land masses in the northern hemisphere