1. Which is not a key idea of Whittaker et al, A general dynamic theory of oceanic island biogeography?
- Biodiversity is scale-dependent; that is, diversity depends strongly on the size of the units used in data collection. Three attributes of scale are particularly important in species richness studies: focus, grain and extent
- GDM can offer the foundation for a newly expanded theory of island biogeography, unifying ecological and evolutionary biogeography.
- MacArthur and Wilson’s dynamic equilibrium model of island biogeography provides a powerful framework for understanding the ecological processes acting on insular populations
- GDM of oceanic island biogeography providing explanation of biodiversity patterns through describing the relationships between fundamental biogeographical processes – speciation, immigration, extinction – through time and in relation to island
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2. Which is not a key statement in Jackson's What was natural in the coastal oceans?
- Overfishing in the 19th century reduced vast beds of oysters in Chesapeake Bay and other estuaries to a few percent of pristine abundances and promoted eutrophication
- Recent collapses of reef corals and seagrasses are due ultimately to losses of these large consumers as much as to more recent changes in climate, eutrophication, or outbreaks of disease.
- Humans transformed Western Atlantic coastal marine ecosystems before modern ecological investigations began
- Untold millions of large fishes, sharks, sea turtles, and manatees were removed from the Caribbean in the 17th to 19th centuries
3. Which is not a feature of Shuman's Paleoclimate Reconstruction?
- Quantitative- 1) Tree rings 2) paleoclimate conditions 3) geochemical records 4) physical measurements of temperature
- Root cause of the Sahelian desiccation is natural in origin and may lie in the low-frequency and aperiodic response of the coupled ocean atmosphere system to random forcing, perhaps exaggerated in part by the potential for large-scale land cover atmo
- Proxies: Evidence of past climate conditions come from many different sources
- Qualitative: eg: Louis Agassiz (1840) recognized that hills and ridges of unconsolidated boulders, cobbles, and fine sediment, striations on smoothly worn bedrock and erratic boulders, among other features, represented the deposits of glaciers
- The accumulation of certain elements and isotopes within glaciers, sediments, and the fossil remains of organisms; or the deposition of sediment in glacial moraines, lakes, and oceans.
4. Which is not a feature of Holden's niche, An Introduction to the physical geography and the environment?
- Intraspecific competition is within the same species, it may lead to the exclusion of weaker individuals and explain the patterns of territories which control both feeding and reproduction opportunities for the species.
- Reproductive/life strategies: another factor in the patterns and distributions found in ecology relates to the life strategies of species and individuals. These are relayed to elements of the life cycle of s species, specially its means of dispersal
- Interspecific competition arises between other species and the species share the same spatial distribution but not at the same time
- Competition always had significant effects on distribution patterns, on relative abundances, and on diversity, consistent with the notion that competition has strong effects on community structure
- Niche: the position or role of an animal or plant species within its community in relation to its specific requirement of habitat resources and microclimate conditions (fundamental and realized)
- ‘R’ strategies are more likely to be found in new or disturbed sites, since they have a good colonizing ability
- ‘K’ strategist, these species are more likely to do well in a less disturbed environment, both stress and disturbance may alter a community.
5. Which is not a feature of Gillett's Ongoing climate change following a complete cessation of co2 emmissions?
- We suggest that a warming of the intermediate-depth ocean around Antarctica at the scale simulated for the year 3000 could lead to the collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, which would be associated with a rise in sea level of several metres
- Historical data and new archeological databases reveal much greater per-capita land use in preindustrial than in recent centuries. This early forest clearance caused much greater preindustrial greenhousegas emissions and global temperature changes
- Projections show warming at intermediate depths in the Southern Ocean that is many times larger by the year 3000 than that realized in 2100