Earth and Environmental Dynamics

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 13-05-15 15:30

1. Which is not a key feature of Anderson's High resolution record of the N.Hem climate extending into the last interglacial period?

  • Two deep ice cores from central Greenland, drilled in the 1990s, have played a key role in climate reconstructions of the Northern Hemisphere
  • The 100 kyr quasiperiodic variation of continental ice cover, which has been a persistent feature of climate system evolution throughout the most recent 900 kyr of Earth history, has occurred as a consequence changes in the season insolation regime
  • The oxygen isotopes in the ice imply that climate was stable during the last interglacial period, with temperatures 5 8C warmer than today.
  • We find unexpectedly large temperature differences between our new record from northern Greenland and the undisturbed sections of the cores from central Greenland, suggesting ice in the N.Hem modulated the latitudinal temp gradients in Greenland
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Other questions in this quiz

2. Which is not a main idea of Gough and Field's, Latitudinal Diversity Gradients?

  • Geometric, climatic, energy, temperature and evolutionary hypotheses
  • The influence of biota on climate- soil, hydrogeology, geology and atmospheric composition
  • LDG: decrease in diversity from the equator to the poles, more pronounced today than any other time in the past and is increasing
  • Biodiversity is scale-dependent; that is, diversity depends strongly on the size of the units used in data collection. Three attributes of scale are particularly important in species richness studies: focus, grain and extent
  • Biodiversity: concerns the variety of life within and between species and higher taxa

3. Which is not a challenge in Game et al (2012) Pelagic protected areas: the missing dimension in ocean conservation?

  • MPA's versus other conservation strategies: MPAs are just one component of the pelagic conservation landscape, and should be complemented by other forms of management.
  • Biological challenges- It could be reasonably argued that establishing an MPA over just a small portion of a species’s annual distribution is of limited value, given individuals will remain exposed to threats outside the protected area
  • Future directions: Extensive data on physical, biological and socioeconomic factors can be used in concert with new conservation planning techniques to guide the defensible selection and design of pelagic MPAs
  • Physical challenges- The pelagic environment is characterized by physical processes that are highly dynamic in space and time. These include ocean currents, thermal fronts, upwelling and down welling regions and eddies and wind-driven mixing.
  • Design challenges- Even with broad agreement that well-designed and -located MPAs would be a valuable tool for pelagic management, there are still concerns over a lack of data, methods and tools to enable defensible selection of the best areas
  • There is increasing support for marine protected areas (MPAs) as a tool for pelagic conservation. In addition to supplying >80% of the fish consumed by humans, pelagic ecosystems account for nearly half of the photosynthesis on Earth.
  • Governance challenges: Restricting access to such areas presents a substantial governance challenge owing to the fragmented and sectorial management framework common for most offshore regions

4. Which is not a key idea of Holden's Dispersal and Distribution in An Introduction to the physical geography and the environment?

  • Competition always had significant effects on distribution patterns, on relative abundances, and on diversity, consistent with the notion that competition has strong effects on community structure
  • Global scale patterns of species distribution: climate, geological factors and ecological factors.
  • Temporal patterns and distributions: geological time, post glacial change, migratory patterns and alien introduction

5. Which is not a feature of Gillett's Ongoing climate change following a complete cessation of co2 emmissions?

  • We suggest that a warming of the intermediate-depth ocean around Antarctica at the scale simulated for the year 3000 could lead to the collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, which would be associated with a rise in sea level of several metres
  • Historical data and new archeological databases reveal much greater per-capita land use in preindustrial than in recent centuries. This early forest clearance caused much greater preindustrial greenhousegas emissions and global temperature changes
  • Projections show warming at intermediate depths in the Southern Ocean that is many times larger by the year 3000 than that realized in 2100


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