Earth and Environmental Dynamics

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 13-05-15 15:30

1. Which is not a key feature of Crutzen and Stoermer's The Anthropocene?

  • The influence of gravitational n-body effects in the Solar System on the geometry of Earth’s orbit around the Sun
  • Man’s activities are seen to be greater of that than the force of nature. The term “noösphere”, the world of thought, to mark the growing role played by mankind’s brainpower and technological talents in shaping its own future
  • Humans have altered over 50% of the earth’s surface. The start of this period is seen to be around the 18thC but this is simply because concentrations of several greenhouse gases, such as CO2 and CH4 start a beginning growth.
  • Without major catastrophes like an enormous volcanic eruption, an unexpected epidemic, a large-scale nuclear war, an asteroid impact, a new ice age, or continued plundering of Earth’s resources by partially still primitive technology mankind stay
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2. Which is not a feature of Holden's niche, An Introduction to the physical geography and the environment?

  • Competition always had significant effects on distribution patterns, on relative abundances, and on diversity, consistent with the notion that competition has strong effects on community structure
  • ‘K’ strategist, these species are more likely to do well in a less disturbed environment, both stress and disturbance may alter a community.
  • ‘R’ strategies are more likely to be found in new or disturbed sites, since they have a good colonizing ability
  • Intraspecific competition is within the same species, it may lead to the exclusion of weaker individuals and explain the patterns of territories which control both feeding and reproduction opportunities for the species.
  • Interspecific competition arises between other species and the species share the same spatial distribution but not at the same time
  • Niche: the position or role of an animal or plant species within its community in relation to its specific requirement of habitat resources and microclimate conditions (fundamental and realized)
  • Reproductive/life strategies: another factor in the patterns and distributions found in ecology relates to the life strategies of species and individuals. These are relayed to elements of the life cycle of s species, specially its means of dispersal

3. Which is not a key feature of Thompson's Ice core evidence for climate change in the Tropics?

  • Hypothesize that the differences in animal resources between the northern and southern Sahara during the early Holocene influenced the way it was peopled by humans
  • The tropical and subtropical ice core records may potentially yield long annual to millennial-scale records of El Nin8o-Southern Oscillation events and monsoon variability and thus provide important insights into the magnitude and freq. of events
  • Much of the climatic activity of significance to humanity, such as variations in the occurrence and intensity of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation and monsoons, are largely connected to lower latitudes
  • Tropical climate was cooler and more variable during the last glacial cycle and has renewed current interest in the tropical water vapour cycle. The new tropical ice core records raise additional questions about our understanding of the role of the t
  • The characteristics of the current warming will be examined and compared to earlier periods of climatic warming such as the transition from the last glacial into the current interglacial as well as other periods within the Holocene.

4. Which is not a key feature of Tudge's, Secret Life of Trees?

  • History- glaciations and climatic variations which caused forests to disappear in the higher latitudes. Influence of greenhouse gases and in particular carbon dioxide
  • 3 northerners- aspen and its long lateral roots which send up suckers, grow into new trees. Jack pine- lower branches to shed and die when growing taller so they are burnt in the fire, seed encased. Coastal redwoods re-root themselves as the silt inc
  • The efficacy of animal seed dispersal to restoration sites can be limited by the degree of isolation from a seed source, absence of animal seed dispersers in the region and by large seed size
  • Heat light and logistics- plants grow better in warmer places. Individuals can provide new niches for other individuals, eg: trees which have leaves, buds, flowers, fruits, twigs etc.

5. Which is not a key statement in Jackson's What was natural in the coastal oceans?

  • Untold millions of large fishes, sharks, sea turtles, and manatees were removed from the Caribbean in the 17th to 19th centuries
  • Recent collapses of reef corals and seagrasses are due ultimately to losses of these large consumers as much as to more recent changes in climate, eutrophication, or outbreaks of disease.
  • Overfishing in the 19th century reduced vast beds of oysters in Chesapeake Bay and other estuaries to a few percent of pristine abundances and promoted eutrophication
  • Humans transformed Western Atlantic coastal marine ecosystems before modern ecological investigations began


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