Earth and Environmental Dynamics

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 13-05-15 15:30

1. Which is not a key feature of Crutzen and Stoermer's The Anthropocene?

  • Without major catastrophes like an enormous volcanic eruption, an unexpected epidemic, a large-scale nuclear war, an asteroid impact, a new ice age, or continued plundering of Earth’s resources by partially still primitive technology mankind stay
  • The influence of gravitational n-body effects in the Solar System on the geometry of Earth’s orbit around the Sun
  • Humans have altered over 50% of the earth’s surface. The start of this period is seen to be around the 18thC but this is simply because concentrations of several greenhouse gases, such as CO2 and CH4 start a beginning growth.
  • Man’s activities are seen to be greater of that than the force of nature. The term “noösphere”, the world of thought, to mark the growing role played by mankind’s brainpower and technological talents in shaping its own future
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Other questions in this quiz

2. Which is not a key idea of Whittaker et al, A general dynamic theory of oceanic island biogeography?

  • GDM can offer the foundation for a newly expanded theory of island biogeography, unifying ecological and evolutionary biogeography.
  • Biodiversity is scale-dependent; that is, diversity depends strongly on the size of the units used in data collection. Three attributes of scale are particularly important in species richness studies: focus, grain and extent
  • GDM of oceanic island biogeography providing explanation of biodiversity patterns through describing the relationships between fundamental biogeographical processes – speciation, immigration, extinction – through time and in relation to island
  • MacArthur and Wilson’s dynamic equilibrium model of island biogeography provides a powerful framework for understanding the ecological processes acting on insular populations

3. Which is not a key idea from Bjorck's Younger Dryas Osciliation?

  • With respect to the Younger Dryas oscillation, it is likely that a partial shutdown of the Atlantic conveyor belt decreased northern THC, which led to a warming in the Southern Ocean, explaining the early onset of the interglacial warming in south
  • The present interglacial, the Holocene, was preceded by a distinct cool/dry event in the Northern Hemisphere, generally designated the Younger Dryas cooling, and manifested by a winter dominated climatic signature.
  • It also shows that the Holocene warming began much earlier in the Southern Hemisphere, during the peak of the northern Younger Dryas cooling
  • Axial wobble which is called the precession of the equinoxes. The gravitational pull exerted by the sun and the moon cause the earth to wobble on its axis
  • The transitional overlap between northern–southern warming and cooling is reminiscent of the interhemispheric phase lags during the Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles of glacial time

4. What is Goldberg and Andrew key idea in Patterns and consequences of interspecific competition in natural communities?

  • Niche: the position or role of an animal or plant species within its community in relation to its specific requirement of habitat resources and microclimate conditions (fundamental and realized)
  • Competition always had significant effects on distribution patterns, on relative abundances, and on diversity, consistent with the notion that competition has strong effects on community structure
  • Global scale patterns of species distribution: There are three global scale patterns of species distribution.
  • Reproductive/life strategies: another factor in the patterns and distributions found in ecology relates to the life strategies of species and individuals. These are relayed to elements of the life cycle of s species, specially its means of dispersal

5. Which is not a main message in Drake et al's Ancient watercourses and biogeography of the Sahara?

  • Hypothesize that the differences in animal resources between the northern and southern Sahara during the early Holocene influenced the way it was peopled by humans
  • Evidence that the Sahara was not an effective barrier and indicate how both animals and humans populated it during past humid phases. Analysis of the zoogeography of the Sahara shows that more animals crossed via route than used the Nile corridor
  • Reliable meteorological observations for climate reconstruction are limited or absent prior to A.D. 1850 for much of the Earth and particularly in both tropical South America and the Tibetan Plateau region of central Asia.
  • This dispersal was possible because during the Holocene humid period the region contained a series of linked lakes, rivers, and inland deltas comprising a large interlinked waterway, channeling water and animals into and across the Sahara

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