1. Which is not a main idea of Gough and Field's, Latitudinal Diversity Gradients?
- The influence of biota on climate- soil, hydrogeology, geology and atmospheric composition
- Biodiversity is scale-dependent; that is, diversity depends strongly on the size of the units used in data collection. Three attributes of scale are particularly important in species richness studies: focus, grain and extent
- Geometric, climatic, energy, temperature and evolutionary hypotheses
- Biodiversity: concerns the variety of life within and between species and higher taxa
- LDG: decrease in diversity from the equator to the poles, more pronounced today than any other time in the past and is increasing
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2. Which is not a key feature of Hulme's Climatic responses?
- Root cause of the Sahelian desiccation is natural in origin and may lie in the low-frequency and aperiodic response of the coupled ocean atmosphere system to random forcing, perhaps exaggerated in part by the potential for large-scale land cover atmo
- Root cause of the Sahelian desiccation is natural response of the coupled ocean atmosphere system to random forcing, perhaps exaggerated in part by the potential for large-scale land cover atmosphere feedback processes in this vast dryland region.
- The characteristics of the current warming will be examined and compared to earlier periods of climatic warming such as the transition from the last glacial into the current interglacial as well as other periods within the Holocene.
- Land cover transformation, partly driven by socio-economic processes in the region, was to blame and that the desiccation might, in principle, be reversible by the pursuit of different land use policies
- Annual rainfall across this region fell by between 20 and 30 per cent between the decades leading up to political independence for the Sahelian nations
3. Which is not a key feature of Crutzen and Stoermer's The Anthropocene?
- Humans have altered over 50% of the earth’s surface. The start of this period is seen to be around the 18thC but this is simply because concentrations of several greenhouse gases, such as CO2 and CH4 start a beginning growth.
- Without major catastrophes like an enormous volcanic eruption, an unexpected epidemic, a large-scale nuclear war, an asteroid impact, a new ice age, or continued plundering of Earth’s resources by partially still primitive technology mankind stay
- The influence of gravitational n-body effects in the Solar System on the geometry of Earth’s orbit around the Sun
- Man’s activities are seen to be greater of that than the force of nature. The term “noösphere”, the world of thought, to mark the growing role played by mankind’s brainpower and technological talents in shaping its own future
4. Which is not a signal in Labeyrie's Sub-Milankovitch/D/O and Heinrich Events?
- Mechanisms of millennial climate change: modelling efforts- The rapidly expanding suite of high-resolution paleoclimate records that exhibit millennial-scale variability has provided an enormous stimulus to numerical modelling
- High latitude signals- Each DO cycle represented in the Greenland temperature record has been linked with a large-scale reorganization of the atmospheric circulation around the Northern ice sheets.
- With respect to the Younger Dryas oscillation, it is likely that a partial shutdown of the Atlantic conveyor belt decreased northern THC, which led to a warming in the Southern Ocean, explaining the early onset of the interglacial warming in south
- Millennial changes in deep and intermediate ocean hydrography- The ocean’s large-scale circulation is a key part of the Earth’s climate system that is directly coupled with atmospheric circulation
- North-south Linkage- The relation between Greenland and Antarctic temperature change on millennial timescales is perhaps best described as ‘asynchronous’; indeed, the fact that the two climate signals are distinct
- Low latitude signals- The best climate information obtained from low latitude records is linked to changes in temperature, precipitation, and monsoon activity
5. Which is not a conclusion of Medina in a global review of the impacts of invasive cats on island endangered vertebrates?
- More research on the impacts of feral cats on island animals can improve these guidelines and thus improve the prioritization of islands for cat eradication.
- Cats have contributed to a minimum of 14% of all bird, mammal, and reptile extinctions and the decline of at least 8% of critically endangered birds, mammals, and reptiles
- More studies are needed that quantify changes in the survival, reproductive success, or population size of native vertebrates following cat eradication
- Cats have contributed to a minimum of 24% of all bird, mammal, and reptile extinctions and the decline of at least 8% of critically endangered birds, mammals, and reptiles
- Our review undoubtedly underestimated the impact of cats on native species due to the lack of studies on numerous islands of the world and on numerous endangered species particularly in Asia, Indonesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia
- Existing studies suffered from uneven geographic coverage of vertebrate orders (e.g. clumping of reptile studies in the Caribbean and mammal studies in the Eastern Pacific) and limited quantification of impacts or controlled experimental design.