1. Which is not a signal in Labeyrie's Sub-Milankovitch/D/O and Heinrich Events?
- Mechanisms of millennial climate change: modelling efforts- The rapidly expanding suite of high-resolution paleoclimate records that exhibit millennial-scale variability has provided an enormous stimulus to numerical modelling
- Millennial changes in deep and intermediate ocean hydrography- The ocean’s large-scale circulation is a key part of the Earth’s climate system that is directly coupled with atmospheric circulation
- With respect to the Younger Dryas oscillation, it is likely that a partial shutdown of the Atlantic conveyor belt decreased northern THC, which led to a warming in the Southern Ocean, explaining the early onset of the interglacial warming in south
- High latitude signals- Each DO cycle represented in the Greenland temperature record has been linked with a large-scale reorganization of the atmospheric circulation around the Northern ice sheets.
- Low latitude signals- The best climate information obtained from low latitude records is linked to changes in temperature, precipitation, and monsoon activity
- North-south Linkage- The relation between Greenland and Antarctic temperature change on millennial timescales is perhaps best described as ‘asynchronous’; indeed, the fact that the two climate signals are distinct
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2. Which is not a key idea of Wunderle's The role of animals seed dispersal in accelerating native forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands?
- The efficacy of animal seed dispersal to restoration sites can be limited by the degree of isolation from a seed source, absence of animal seed dispersers in the region and by large seed size
- In tropical regions seed dispersal by animals is the predominant form of dissemination of propagules and has the potential to facilitate recolonization of native vegetation on degraded sites
- The account of biodiversity of trees in the tropics comes in three forms
- Tree plantations with good traits will be particularly attractive to animal seed dispersers and, therefore, will have higher rates of seed rain than plantations lacking these traits.
3. Which is not a key idea of Whittaker et al, A general dynamic theory of oceanic island biogeography?
- GDM can offer the foundation for a newly expanded theory of island biogeography, unifying ecological and evolutionary biogeography.
- MacArthur and Wilson’s dynamic equilibrium model of island biogeography provides a powerful framework for understanding the ecological processes acting on insular populations
- Biodiversity is scale-dependent; that is, diversity depends strongly on the size of the units used in data collection. Three attributes of scale are particularly important in species richness studies: focus, grain and extent
- GDM of oceanic island biogeography providing explanation of biodiversity patterns through describing the relationships between fundamental biogeographical processes – speciation, immigration, extinction – through time and in relation to island
4. Which is not a feature of Gillett's Ongoing climate change following a complete cessation of co2 emmissions?
- We suggest that a warming of the intermediate-depth ocean around Antarctica at the scale simulated for the year 3000 could lead to the collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, which would be associated with a rise in sea level of several metres
- Historical data and new archeological databases reveal much greater per-capita land use in preindustrial than in recent centuries. This early forest clearance caused much greater preindustrial greenhousegas emissions and global temperature changes
- Projections show warming at intermediate depths in the Southern Ocean that is many times larger by the year 3000 than that realized in 2100
5. Which is not a key feature of Crutzen and Stoermer's The Anthropocene?
- Humans have altered over 50% of the earth’s surface. The start of this period is seen to be around the 18thC but this is simply because concentrations of several greenhouse gases, such as CO2 and CH4 start a beginning growth.
- Without major catastrophes like an enormous volcanic eruption, an unexpected epidemic, a large-scale nuclear war, an asteroid impact, a new ice age, or continued plundering of Earth’s resources by partially still primitive technology mankind stay
- The influence of gravitational n-body effects in the Solar System on the geometry of Earth’s orbit around the Sun
- Man’s activities are seen to be greater of that than the force of nature. The term “noösphere”, the world of thought, to mark the growing role played by mankind’s brainpower and technological talents in shaping its own future