1. Which is not a feature of Gillett's Ongoing climate change following a complete cessation of co2 emmissions?
- Historical data and new archeological databases reveal much greater per-capita land use in preindustrial than in recent centuries. This early forest clearance caused much greater preindustrial greenhousegas emissions and global temperature changes
- Projections show warming at intermediate depths in the Southern Ocean that is many times larger by the year 3000 than that realized in 2100
- We suggest that a warming of the intermediate-depth ocean around Antarctica at the scale simulated for the year 3000 could lead to the collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, which would be associated with a rise in sea level of several metres
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2. Which is not a feature of Hampton's 60yrs of enviro change in the world's largest freshwater lake?
- We show that two processes of atmospheric forcing—an increasing occurrence of La Niña events and rising levels of summer insolation—had a stronger influence during the late Holocene than oceanic processes driven by southern westerly winds and upwell
- Changes in Lake Baikal are particularly significant as an integrated signal of long-term regional warming, because this lake is expected to be among those most resistant to climate change due to its tremendous volume
- Attaining depths over 1.6 km, Lake Baikal is the deepest and most voluminous of the world's great lakes. Increases in average water temperature (1.21 °C since 1946)
- Results suggest that cladocerans increased strongly in response to temperature but not to algal biomass, and cladocerans depressed some algal resources without observable fertilization effects
- High-resolution data collected over the past 60 years by a single family of Siberian scientists on Lake Baikal reveal significant warming of surface waters and long-term changes in the basal food web of the world's largest, most ancient lake
3. Which is not a challenge for studies of realized niche changes during biological invasions, in Guisan et al, Unifying niche shift studies?
- 3) Although correlative niche shift studies of exotic species may guide experimental studies, a dual approach has been rare so far
- 4) it is likely that we will gain an enhanced appreciation for how multiple factors interact to influence plant population abundance and community organization
- 2) Assessing invasions in non-analog environments have been poorly addressed so far. Because these situations cannot be predicted from the native range with static approaches, and thus their interpretations remain speculative
- 1) Assessing climatic niche changes at finer scales and in combination with other non-climatic factors, such as differences in soils, biota, and disturbances between the native and exotic range
4. Which is not a key idea from Bjorck's Younger Dryas Osciliation?
- Axial wobble which is called the precession of the equinoxes. The gravitational pull exerted by the sun and the moon cause the earth to wobble on its axis
- The transitional overlap between northern–southern warming and cooling is reminiscent of the interhemispheric phase lags during the Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles of glacial time
- With respect to the Younger Dryas oscillation, it is likely that a partial shutdown of the Atlantic conveyor belt decreased northern THC, which led to a warming in the Southern Ocean, explaining the early onset of the interglacial warming in south
- The present interglacial, the Holocene, was preceded by a distinct cool/dry event in the Northern Hemisphere, generally designated the Younger Dryas cooling, and manifested by a winter dominated climatic signature.
- It also shows that the Holocene warming began much earlier in the Southern Hemisphere, during the peak of the northern Younger Dryas cooling
5. Which is not a key feature of Anderson's High resolution record of the N.Hem climate extending into the last interglacial period?
- The 100 kyr quasiperiodic variation of continental ice cover, which has been a persistent feature of climate system evolution throughout the most recent 900 kyr of Earth history, has occurred as a consequence changes in the season insolation regime
- The oxygen isotopes in the ice imply that climate was stable during the last interglacial period, with temperatures 5 8C warmer than today.
- Two deep ice cores from central Greenland, drilled in the 1990s, have played a key role in climate reconstructions of the Northern Hemisphere
- We find unexpectedly large temperature differences between our new record from northern Greenland and the undisturbed sections of the cores from central Greenland, suggesting ice in the N.Hem modulated the latitudinal temp gradients in Greenland