Earth and Environmental Dynamics

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 13-05-15 15:30

1. Which is not a feature of Pike et al's Glacial discharge along the west Antarctic Peninsula?

  • We show that two processes of atmospheric forcing—an increasing occurrence of La Niña events and rising levels of summer insolation—had a stronger influence during the late Holocene than oceanic processes driven by southern westerly winds and upwell
  • Suggested mechanisms range from upwelling of warm deep waters onto the continental shelf in response to variations in the westerly winds, to an influence of El Niño–Southern Oscillation on sea surface temperatures
  • Human influence has changed the frequency of high-impact temperature and precipitation extremes on average over land where there are sufficient observational data to make this assessment
  • We assess atmospheric versus oceanic influences on glacial discharge at this location, using analyses of diatom geochemistry to reconstruct atmospherically forced glacial ice discharge and diatom assemblage ecology to investigate the oceanic environm
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Other questions in this quiz

2. Which is not a challenge for studies of realized niche changes during biological invasions, in Guisan et al, Unifying niche shift studies?

  • 3) Although correlative niche shift studies of exotic species may guide experimental studies, a dual approach has been rare so far
  • 4) it is likely that we will gain an enhanced appreciation for how multiple factors interact to influence plant population abundance and community organization
  • 2) Assessing invasions in non-analog environments have been poorly addressed so far. Because these situations cannot be predicted from the native range with static approaches, and thus their interpretations remain speculative
  • 1) Assessing climatic niche changes at finer scales and in combination with other non-climatic factors, such as differences in soils, biota, and disturbances between the native and exotic range

3. Which is not a key idea from Triantis and Bhagwat's Applied Island Biogeography?

  • Habitat corridors- this is shown by linking larger reserves together, such as forest peninsulas, hedgerows, rivers, roads and railways
  • Landscape context: matrix effects- the presence of a species within a reserve will depend not only on the suitability of habitat within the reserve, but also on the species ability to use the intervening landscape matrix
  • Edge effects- where there are two habitats that intermingle, they form a zone of species overlap called an ecotone
  • Relaxation and extinction debt- relaxation is where species are lost by extinction and immigration but the population adapts to the new species richness. This time difference is known as the lag time, anticipated species loss is termed the extinction
  • Species area relationships in conservation- the increase in species number with increasing area
  • Emergent guidelines for conservation- MacArthur and Wilson, four key areas that consider the importance for a more successful application of island theory to conservation biogeography
  • Metapopulation dynamics- where a particular species occupies geographically separated patches that are interconnected by occasional movements of individuals and gametes.
  • Minimum viable populations, minimum areas and incidence functions
  • Nestedness- used to describe the patterns of species composition within continental biotas and among isolated habitats such as islands and landscape fragments
  • Biodiversity is scale-dependent; that is, diversity depends strongly on the size of the units used in data collection. Three attributes of scale are particularly important in species richness studies: focus, grain and extent
  • Ecosystem collapse and threshold responses in habitat islands- where the loss of the habitat is so extreme that the immigration into a patch virtually ceases, species richness may collapse

4. Which is not a main message in Drake et al's Ancient watercourses and biogeography of the Sahara?

  • This dispersal was possible because during the Holocene humid period the region contained a series of linked lakes, rivers, and inland deltas comprising a large interlinked waterway, channeling water and animals into and across the Sahara
  • Hypothesize that the differences in animal resources between the northern and southern Sahara during the early Holocene influenced the way it was peopled by humans
  • Reliable meteorological observations for climate reconstruction are limited or absent prior to A.D. 1850 for much of the Earth and particularly in both tropical South America and the Tibetan Plateau region of central Asia.
  • Evidence that the Sahara was not an effective barrier and indicate how both animals and humans populated it during past humid phases. Analysis of the zoogeography of the Sahara shows that more animals crossed via route than used the Nile corridor

5. Which is not a signal in Labeyrie's Sub-Milankovitch/D/O and Heinrich Events?

  • With respect to the Younger Dryas oscillation, it is likely that a partial shutdown of the Atlantic conveyor belt decreased northern THC, which led to a warming in the Southern Ocean, explaining the early onset of the interglacial warming in south
  • Millennial changes in deep and intermediate ocean hydrography- The ocean’s large-scale circulation is a key part of the Earth’s climate system that is directly coupled with atmospheric circulation
  • North-south Linkage- The relation between Greenland and Antarctic temperature change on millennial timescales is perhaps best described as ‘asynchronous’; indeed, the fact that the two climate signals are distinct
  • Mechanisms of millennial climate change: modelling efforts- The rapidly expanding suite of high-resolution paleoclimate records that exhibit millennial-scale variability has provided an enormous stimulus to numerical modelling
  • High latitude signals- Each DO cycle represented in the Greenland temperature record has been linked with a large-scale reorganization of the atmospheric circulation around the Northern ice sheets.
  • Low latitude signals- The best climate information obtained from low latitude records is linked to changes in temperature, precipitation, and monsoon activity

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