Earth and Environmental Dynamics

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 13-05-15 15:30

1. Which is not a key idea of Peltier's Global glacial istostacy and the surface of the ice age Earth?

  • The influence of gravitational n-body effects in the Solar System on the geometry of Earth’s orbit around the Sun
  • The 100 kyr quasiperiodic variation of continental ice cover, which has been a persistent feature of climate system evolution throughout the most recent 900 kyr of Earth history, has occurred as a consequence changes in the season insolation regime
  • We find unexpectedly large temperature differences between our new record from northern Greenland and the undisturbed sections of the cores from central Greenland, suggesting ice in the N.Hem modulated the latitudinal temp gradients in Greenland
  • The impacts of the changing surface ice load upon both Earth’s shape and gravitational field, as well as upon sea-level history, have come to be measurable using a variety of geological and geophysical techniques
1 of 20

Other questions in this quiz

2. Which is not a key feature of Ruddiman's The Anthropocene?

  • Humans have altered over 50% of the earth’s surface. The start of this period is seen to be around the 18thC but this is simply because concentrations of several greenhouse gases, such as CO2 and CH4 start a beginning growth.
  • The industrial view holds that most significant impacts have occurred since the early industrial era (∼1850), whereas the earlyanthropogenic view recognizes large impacts thousands of years earlier
  • This review focuses on three indices of global-scale human influence: forest clearance (and related land use), emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4), and effects on global temperature.
  • Historical data and new archeological databases reveal much greater per-capita land use in preindustrial than in recent centuries. This early forest clearance caused much greater preindustrial greenhousegas emissions and global temperature changes

3. Which is not a key statement in Jackson's What was natural in the coastal oceans?

  • Overfishing in the 19th century reduced vast beds of oysters in Chesapeake Bay and other estuaries to a few percent of pristine abundances and promoted eutrophication
  • Humans transformed Western Atlantic coastal marine ecosystems before modern ecological investigations began
  • Untold millions of large fishes, sharks, sea turtles, and manatees were removed from the Caribbean in the 17th to 19th centuries
  • Recent collapses of reef corals and seagrasses are due ultimately to losses of these large consumers as much as to more recent changes in climate, eutrophication, or outbreaks of disease.

4. Which is not a key feature of Crutzen and Stoermer's The Anthropocene?

  • The influence of gravitational n-body effects in the Solar System on the geometry of Earth’s orbit around the Sun
  • Man’s activities are seen to be greater of that than the force of nature. The term “noösphere”, the world of thought, to mark the growing role played by mankind’s brainpower and technological talents in shaping its own future
  • Humans have altered over 50% of the earth’s surface. The start of this period is seen to be around the 18thC but this is simply because concentrations of several greenhouse gases, such as CO2 and CH4 start a beginning growth.
  • Without major catastrophes like an enormous volcanic eruption, an unexpected epidemic, a large-scale nuclear war, an asteroid impact, a new ice age, or continued plundering of Earth’s resources by partially still primitive technology mankind stay

5. Which is not a feature of Elias' Societal Relevance of Quaternary Research?

  • Ocean history: This thermohaline conveyor belt acts as a major conduit for the exchange of thermal energy, nutrients, and dissolved oxygen between the shallow and deep oceans of the world
  • Sea level change: There is a growing body of evidence that the current level of global warming is going to bring about substantial rises in sea level, as polar ice caps melt
  • Soil studies: Modern soils in the rich agricultural regions of the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere owe much of their formation to Pleistocene glaciations
  • Environmental change in oceanic ecosystems: Specifically, we need to know more about changes in continental shelf productivity during times of different sea levels, the storage of nutrients on continental shelves, and how changes in sea level affect
  • Cryosphere history: The waxing and waning of ice sheets has been the dominant environmental phenomenon of the Quaternary, either directly or indirectly affecting every region of the globe
  • Lithosphere history: Understanding the Earth’s geomorphic history is the key to understanding current geomorphological problems
  • Climate history: a study of Quaternary climate change provides us with an understanding of climatic variation on a much larger scale than has been recorded in historic records of the last few centuries
  • Biosphere history: Our knowledge of how ecosystems function has been greatly aided by Quaternary paleontological studies
  • Human coming of age in the quaternary: Although modern societies are quite capable of shaping their immediate environment to suit their needs, for more than 90% of human history, the environment has been shaping us
  • Quantitative- 1) Tree rings 2) paleoclimate conditions 3) geochemical records 4) physical measurements of temperature
  • Geologic hazards: Our understanding of most geologic hazards has been greatly enhanced by Quaternary studies. The reason we must probe into the past to understand these phenomena is that most of them are highly sporadic and largely unpredictable
  • Coastal deposition and erosion: coastal erosion has been going on for many thousands of years, and has been documented by marine geologists studying Quaternary nearshore deposits
  • Pace of climate change: Predicted rates of global warming in the coming decades are much faster than the rates of temperature change observed in recent centuries
  • Modern extinction rates: There have been at least five well-documented mass extinctions in the planet’s history

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Geography resources »