Earth and Environmental Dynamics

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  • Created by: Sophie
  • Created on: 13-05-15 15:30

1. Which is not a key statement in Jackson's What was natural in the coastal oceans?

  • Untold millions of large fishes, sharks, sea turtles, and manatees were removed from the Caribbean in the 17th to 19th centuries
  • Recent collapses of reef corals and seagrasses are due ultimately to losses of these large consumers as much as to more recent changes in climate, eutrophication, or outbreaks of disease.
  • Overfishing in the 19th century reduced vast beds of oysters in Chesapeake Bay and other estuaries to a few percent of pristine abundances and promoted eutrophication
  • Humans transformed Western Atlantic coastal marine ecosystems before modern ecological investigations began
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2. Which is not a key feature of Hulme's Climatic responses?

  • The characteristics of the current warming will be examined and compared to earlier periods of climatic warming such as the transition from the last glacial into the current interglacial as well as other periods within the Holocene.
  • Root cause of the Sahelian desiccation is natural response of the coupled ocean atmosphere system to random forcing, perhaps exaggerated in part by the potential for large-scale land cover atmosphere feedback processes in this vast dryland region.
  • Root cause of the Sahelian desiccation is natural in origin and may lie in the low-frequency and aperiodic response of the coupled ocean atmosphere system to random forcing, perhaps exaggerated in part by the potential for large-scale land cover atmo
  • Annual rainfall across this region fell by between 20 and 30 per cent between the decades leading up to political independence for the Sahelian nations
  • Land cover transformation, partly driven by socio-economic processes in the region, was to blame and that the desiccation might, in principle, be reversible by the pursuit of different land use policies

3. Which is not a main idea of Gough and Field's, Latitudinal Diversity Gradients?

  • Biodiversity is scale-dependent; that is, diversity depends strongly on the size of the units used in data collection. Three attributes of scale are particularly important in species richness studies: focus, grain and extent
  • Geometric, climatic, energy, temperature and evolutionary hypotheses
  • The influence of biota on climate- soil, hydrogeology, geology and atmospheric composition
  • Biodiversity: concerns the variety of life within and between species and higher taxa
  • LDG: decrease in diversity from the equator to the poles, more pronounced today than any other time in the past and is increasing

4. Which is not a feature of Shuman's Paleoclimate Reconstruction?

  • Proxies: Evidence of past climate conditions come from many different sources
  • Quantitative- 1) Tree rings 2) paleoclimate conditions 3) geochemical records 4) physical measurements of temperature
  • The accumulation of certain elements and isotopes within glaciers, sediments, and the fossil remains of organisms; or the deposition of sediment in glacial moraines, lakes, and oceans.
  • Root cause of the Sahelian desiccation is natural in origin and may lie in the low-frequency and aperiodic response of the coupled ocean atmosphere system to random forcing, perhaps exaggerated in part by the potential for large-scale land cover atmo
  • Qualitative: eg: Louis Agassiz (1840) recognized that hills and ridges of unconsolidated boulders, cobbles, and fine sediment, striations on smoothly worn bedrock and erratic boulders, among other features, represented the deposits of glaciers

5. Which is not a key feature of Anderson's High resolution record of the N.Hem climate extending into the last interglacial period?

  • Two deep ice cores from central Greenland, drilled in the 1990s, have played a key role in climate reconstructions of the Northern Hemisphere
  • The 100 kyr quasiperiodic variation of continental ice cover, which has been a persistent feature of climate system evolution throughout the most recent 900 kyr of Earth history, has occurred as a consequence changes in the season insolation regime
  • The oxygen isotopes in the ice imply that climate was stable during the last interglacial period, with temperatures 5 8C warmer than today.
  • We find unexpectedly large temperature differences between our new record from northern Greenland and the undisturbed sections of the cores from central Greenland, suggesting ice in the N.Hem modulated the latitudinal temp gradients in Greenland

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