1. Which is not a key idea from Bjorck's Younger Dryas Osciliation?
- Axial wobble which is called the precession of the equinoxes. The gravitational pull exerted by the sun and the moon cause the earth to wobble on its axis
- With respect to the Younger Dryas oscillation, it is likely that a partial shutdown of the Atlantic conveyor belt decreased northern THC, which led to a warming in the Southern Ocean, explaining the early onset of the interglacial warming in south
- The present interglacial, the Holocene, was preceded by a distinct cool/dry event in the Northern Hemisphere, generally designated the Younger Dryas cooling, and manifested by a winter dominated climatic signature.
- The transitional overlap between northern–southern warming and cooling is reminiscent of the interhemispheric phase lags during the Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles of glacial time
- It also shows that the Holocene warming began much earlier in the Southern Hemisphere, during the peak of the northern Younger Dryas cooling
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2. Which is not a key idea of Whittaker et al, A general dynamic theory of oceanic island biogeography?
- GDM of oceanic island biogeography providing explanation of biodiversity patterns through describing the relationships between fundamental biogeographical processes – speciation, immigration, extinction – through time and in relation to island
- Biodiversity is scale-dependent; that is, diversity depends strongly on the size of the units used in data collection. Three attributes of scale are particularly important in species richness studies: focus, grain and extent
- MacArthur and Wilson’s dynamic equilibrium model of island biogeography provides a powerful framework for understanding the ecological processes acting on insular populations
- GDM can offer the foundation for a newly expanded theory of island biogeography, unifying ecological and evolutionary biogeography.
3. Which is not a key idea of Wunderle's The role of animals seed dispersal in accelerating native forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands?
- The account of biodiversity of trees in the tropics comes in three forms
- In tropical regions seed dispersal by animals is the predominant form of dissemination of propagules and has the potential to facilitate recolonization of native vegetation on degraded sites
- Tree plantations with good traits will be particularly attractive to animal seed dispersers and, therefore, will have higher rates of seed rain than plantations lacking these traits.
- The efficacy of animal seed dispersal to restoration sites can be limited by the degree of isolation from a seed source, absence of animal seed dispersers in the region and by large seed size
4. Which is not a challenge for studies of realized niche changes during biological invasions, in Guisan et al, Unifying niche shift studies?
- 2) Assessing invasions in non-analog environments have been poorly addressed so far. Because these situations cannot be predicted from the native range with static approaches, and thus their interpretations remain speculative
- 3) Although correlative niche shift studies of exotic species may guide experimental studies, a dual approach has been rare so far
- 4) it is likely that we will gain an enhanced appreciation for how multiple factors interact to influence plant population abundance and community organization
- 1) Assessing climatic niche changes at finer scales and in combination with other non-climatic factors, such as differences in soils, biota, and disturbances between the native and exotic range
5. Which is not a key feature of Ruddiman's The Anthropocene?
- This review focuses on three indices of global-scale human influence: forest clearance (and related land use), emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4), and effects on global temperature.
- Humans have altered over 50% of the earth’s surface. The start of this period is seen to be around the 18thC but this is simply because concentrations of several greenhouse gases, such as CO2 and CH4 start a beginning growth.
- The industrial view holds that most significant impacts have occurred since the early industrial era (∼1850), whereas the earlyanthropogenic view recognizes large impacts thousands of years earlier
- Historical data and new archeological databases reveal much greater per-capita land use in preindustrial than in recent centuries. This early forest clearance caused much greater preindustrial greenhousegas emissions and global temperature changes