1. Which is not a key idea of Wunderle's The role of animals seed dispersal in accelerating native forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands?
- The efficacy of animal seed dispersal to restoration sites can be limited by the degree of isolation from a seed source, absence of animal seed dispersers in the region and by large seed size
- In tropical regions seed dispersal by animals is the predominant form of dissemination of propagules and has the potential to facilitate recolonization of native vegetation on degraded sites
- The account of biodiversity of trees in the tropics comes in three forms
- Tree plantations with good traits will be particularly attractive to animal seed dispersers and, therefore, will have higher rates of seed rain than plantations lacking these traits.
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2. Which is not a challenge in Game et al (2012) Pelagic protected areas: the missing dimension in ocean conservation?
- Future directions: Extensive data on physical, biological and socioeconomic factors can be used in concert with new conservation planning techniques to guide the defensible selection and design of pelagic MPAs
- Biological challenges- It could be reasonably argued that establishing an MPA over just a small portion of a species’s annual distribution is of limited value, given individuals will remain exposed to threats outside the protected area
- Physical challenges- The pelagic environment is characterized by physical processes that are highly dynamic in space and time. These include ocean currents, thermal fronts, upwelling and down welling regions and eddies and wind-driven mixing.
- There is increasing support for marine protected areas (MPAs) as a tool for pelagic conservation. In addition to supplying >80% of the fish consumed by humans, pelagic ecosystems account for nearly half of the photosynthesis on Earth.
- Governance challenges: Restricting access to such areas presents a substantial governance challenge owing to the fragmented and sectorial management framework common for most offshore regions
- MPA's versus other conservation strategies: MPAs are just one component of the pelagic conservation landscape, and should be complemented by other forms of management.
- Design challenges- Even with broad agreement that well-designed and -located MPAs would be a valuable tool for pelagic management, there are still concerns over a lack of data, methods and tools to enable defensible selection of the best areas
3. Which is not a key idea of Field's, Biota and Climate?
- Species richness- number of species recorded in a specific area, latitudinal diversity gradient
- Key biotic variable- body size, abundance, range size, growth form, dispersal and phenology
- The influence of biota on climate- soil, hydrogeology, geology and atmospheric composition
- Heat light and logistics- plants grow better in warmer places. Individuals can provide new niches for other individuals, eg: trees which have leaves, buds, flowers, fruits, twigs etc.
- The influence of climate on biota- influence of water which is vital for life. Also light for photosynthesis and temperature depending on the blooded nature of the species
4. Which is not a key feature of Hulme's Climatic responses?
- Root cause of the Sahelian desiccation is natural in origin and may lie in the low-frequency and aperiodic response of the coupled ocean atmosphere system to random forcing, perhaps exaggerated in part by the potential for large-scale land cover atmo
- Annual rainfall across this region fell by between 20 and 30 per cent between the decades leading up to political independence for the Sahelian nations
- The characteristics of the current warming will be examined and compared to earlier periods of climatic warming such as the transition from the last glacial into the current interglacial as well as other periods within the Holocene.
- Root cause of the Sahelian desiccation is natural response of the coupled ocean atmosphere system to random forcing, perhaps exaggerated in part by the potential for large-scale land cover atmosphere feedback processes in this vast dryland region.
- Land cover transformation, partly driven by socio-economic processes in the region, was to blame and that the desiccation might, in principle, be reversible by the pursuit of different land use policies
5. Which is not a key feature of Crutzen and Stoermer's The Anthropocene?
- Without major catastrophes like an enormous volcanic eruption, an unexpected epidemic, a large-scale nuclear war, an asteroid impact, a new ice age, or continued plundering of Earth’s resources by partially still primitive technology mankind stay
- Man’s activities are seen to be greater of that than the force of nature. The term “noösphere”, the world of thought, to mark the growing role played by mankind’s brainpower and technological talents in shaping its own future
- The influence of gravitational n-body effects in the Solar System on the geometry of Earth’s orbit around the Sun
- Humans have altered over 50% of the earth’s surface. The start of this period is seen to be around the 18thC but this is simply because concentrations of several greenhouse gases, such as CO2 and CH4 start a beginning growth.