Dysfunctional Behaviour

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What are the 2 classification systems used to diagnose dysfunctional behaviour?
DSM and ICD
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What is the DSM classification system?
American Psychiatric Association, mental health only, 17 major categories, multi-axial system (1:Main disorder, 2:Personality/Developmental, 3:Relevant physical disorders, 4:Psychosocial/environmental factors, 5: Functioning level scale from 1-100)
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What is the ICD classification system?
Published by WHO to monitor prevalence/incidence of diseases/disorders, 11 major categories, mental and physical, used more internationally.
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of classification systems?
Advantages: Easy to use, universal, reliable (external) and valid (historical) as continuously revised, DSM is more holistic. Disadvantages: reductionist, could be subjective, low internal validity, ethnocentric, potentially unethical if labelling
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What study is used when defining dysfunctional behaviour?
Rosenhan and Seligman
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What is the background to Rosenhan and Seligman's criteria?
DB is very difficult to define, 1 suggestion = "behaviour which disrupts normal functioning such as social interaction and sustaining employment". 2 main ways historically used: deviation from social norms & statistical infrequency, both have issues.
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What are the 4 definitions identified by Rosenhan and Seligman?
1. Statistical infrequency- rare behaviour is abnormal. 2. Deviation from social norms-unwritten social rules. 3. Failure to function adequately- cannot cope with everyday life. 4. Deviation from ideal mental health- Jahoda's criteria
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What are the problems of diagnosing DB with this criteria?
ethnocentric- cultural differences, subjective-different views of what is abnormal (low reliability), statistical infrequency- sometimes incorrect (face validity low), low temporal validity- social norms change over time, unethical if labelling
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What are the advantages of diagnosing DB with this criteria?
SI can be quantified-robust measuring system increase internal validity, F2F - less subjective as assessing functioning rather than identifying DB so less ethnocentric (although still subjective as only using criteria given)
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What study is used to show biases in diagnosing DB?
Ford and Widiger
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What is the background to Ford and Widiger's study?
DSM and ICD intended to make diagnosis as valid and reliable as possible, but still only 50% agreement between clinicians, suggesting subjectivity plays a big part. One bias could be gender -harmful as wrong diagnosis may lead to the wrong medication
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What are the two DB's used in the F&W study?
Histrionic Personality Disorder (HPD) -seductive, manipulative behaviour, shallow expressions of emotions and attention seeking, "female disorder". Antisocial personality disorder- aggressive behaviour and impulsivity, "male disorder".
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What was the aim of the F&W study?
to see if clinicians were gender stereotyping when diagnosing HPD and ASPD.
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What was the sample of the F&W study?
266 clinical psychologists
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What was the method of the F&W study?
Ps given anonymous case studies, only detail given was gender, and asked to give diagnosis (self report measures). Documented cases of HPD, ASPD and patients who showed symptoms in an equal mix.
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What were the findings of the F&W study?
ASPD correctly diagnosed in males considerably more in males than females (42% to 15%). HPD correctly diagnosed in females more than males (76% to 44%).
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What was the conclusion of the F&W study?
Easier to diagnose ASPD than HPD, suggesting criteria not as clear. In general, clinicians biased by stereotypical gender views as significant tendency to diagnose females with HPD & males with ASPD irrespective of reported characteristics in cases.
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How does the biological approach explain dysfunctional behaviour?
Assumes DB stems from a person's biology. Genetic=concordance rates between relatives, Neurological=brain structure &functioning, e.g. brain damage. Physiological=electrical &chemical functioning, e.g. dopamine hypothesis and diathesis-stress model.
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What is Schizophrenia?
Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves.
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What did Kety et al's study find?
GENETICS: looked at incidence of SZ in biological and adoptive relatives of SZ adoptees. Found that incidence of disorder much higher in biological relatives than in adoptive ones, showing genetic influence on the disorder.
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What study is used to show the biological explanation of DB?
Gottesman and Shields
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What was the aim of Gottesman and Shields's study?
to review research on genetic transmission of SZ by reviewing 3 adoption studies and 5 twin studies.
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What was the sample of Gottesman and Shields's study?
711 Ps from adoption studies and 210 MZ twins and 319 DZ twins from the twin studies.
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What was the method of Gottesman and Shields's study?
Incidence of SZ from studies extrapolated using comparisons of biological and adoptive family; and concordance rates in MZ and DZ twins found.
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What were the findings of Gottesman and Shields's study?
All adoption studies found a higher incidence in adopted children with a biological parent with SZ. All twin studies found higher concordance rate in MZ twins (but not 100%).
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What was the conclusion of Gottesman and Shields's study?
There is a heavy genetic input into the onset of SZ, but as the concordance rates in twins was not 100% there much be some interaction with the environment.
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How does the behavioural perspective explain behaviour?
Assumes that all behaviour is learnt so explains DB as a behaviour that an individual has learnt through either classical/operant conditioning or SLT at some point in their life.
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What is classical conditioning?
a learning process that occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired; a response that is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus. Developed by Pavlov -dogs salivated over food, eventually over bell alone
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What study shows the behavioural explanation of DB?
Watson and Raynor
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What was the aim of Watson and Raynor's study?
to see whether it is possible to induce fear of a previously unfeared item through classical conditioning
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What was the sample of Watson and Raynor's study?
Little Albert, aged 11 months.
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What was the method of Watson and Raynor's study?
Paired presentation of a rat (which produced no reaction from Albert when tested beforehand) with a steel bar being hit (Albert feared). Had 5 sessions of this across 2 months.
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What did Watson and Raynor find?
After 5 paired presentations, Albert reacted to the rat alone by crying and trying to crawl away. A month later the reaction was still there, the reaction was also able to be placed onto similar stimuli to the rat.
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What did Watson and Raynor conclude?
It is possible to condition a fear response, suggesting that DB is a learnt response.
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How would the cognitive approach explain DB?
DB is the result of illogical &irrational thinking; focuses on role of mental processes in shaping behaviours. Cognitive therapists recognise cognitive patterns are learnt behaviourally &so cognitive explanations of DB tend to be based on behav psych
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What is cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)?
CBT=type of psychotherapy where negative thoughts are challenged. Proposed by Ellis but developed by Beck; suggested that depressive patterns exhibited a negative cognitive triad: overgeneralisation, non-logical interference, &dichotomous thinking.
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What study is used to show how the cognitive approach explains DB?
Beck et al
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What was the aim of Beck et al?
to understand the cognitive distortions in patients with depression.
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What was the sample of Beck et al?
50 patients diagnosed with depression, matched with 31 non-depressed participants on age, sex and social position.
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What method did Beck et al use?
Clinical interviews with retrospective reports, independent measures design.
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What were the findings of Beck's study?
Themes that appeared only in depressed group: overwhelming responsibilities, anxiety, low self-esteem, self blame, paranoia and desire to 'escape'. Cognitions were automatic, involuntary, plausible and persistent.
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What was the conclusion of Beck et al?
In depression, even mild depression, patients have cognitive distortions that deviate from realistic and logical thinking, showing a cognitive bias to depression.
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How would the behaviourist perspective treat DB?
As it assumes all behaviour is learnt and that it has more to do with the situation than the individual, it thinks treatment should focus on un-learning DB/being conditioned to react differently (counter-conditioning).
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What are different behavioural methods of treating DB?
1. Systematic desensitisation -gradually reducing DB by classical conditioning (hierarchy, relaxation, stimuli) 2. Flooding - immediate exposure to stimuli 3. Aversion therapy -aims to rid a habit by pairing it with unpleasant consequence.
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What study is used to show how DB can be treated behaviourally?
McGrath
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What was the aim of McGrath's study?
to treat a specific noise phobia (DB) using systematic desensitisation.
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What was the sample of McGrath's study?
One girl: Lucy, 9 years old - fear of loud noises, e.g. balloons
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What was the method of McGrath's study?
1. Made a hierarchy of her fears. 2. Relaxation taught 3. Worked through hierarchy. Lucy had hypothetical fear thermometer to rate her fear before and after from 1-10.
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What were the findings of McGrath's study?
Balloons: 7/10 - 3/10, let one burst in hands. Party Poppers: 9/10 - 3/10, popped one when held by therapist. Cap guns: 8/10 - 5/10, let one be fired in the room.
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What was the conclusion of McGrath's study?
Noise phobias are amenable by systematic desensitisation. The most important factors in using the method were participant control and use of inhibitors of the fear response.
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How would the biological approach treat DB?
Biological approach states that something in our biology is the fundamental cause of DB and so treatment should be based on this.
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What are different biological treatments of DB?
1. Drugs-assumes a chemical imbalance is problem, e.g. anti-depressants. 2. Electro Convulsive Therapy)-passes current through brain, inducing convulsions that change the way the brain works. 3. Psychosurgery -removal of brain tissue.
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What study is used to show how DB can be treated biologically?
Karp and Frank
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What was the aim of Karp and Frank's study?
to compare drug and non-drug treatments for depression
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What was the sample of Karp and Frank's study?
Focused on women diagnosed with depression
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What was the method of Karp and Frank's study?
Review article of previous research into effectiveness of single treatments and combined drug and psychotherapeutic therapies.
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What were the findings of the Karp and Frank study?
Many studies showed adding psychological treatments to drug therapy did not increase the effectiveness
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What did Karp and Frank conclude?
No better outcomes for combined therapy, showing the effectiveness of drug therapy in depression (a type of DB).
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How would the cognitive approach treat DB?
It assumes that illogical thought processes cause DB and therefore treatments need to focus on reconstructing these thoughts.
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What are different types of cognitive treatments for DB?
1. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy -cog&behav, challenges negative thoughts. 2. Stress Inoculation Therapy -replaces negative thoughts with positive ones (Meichenbaum) 3. Rational Emotive Therapy -Ellis, disputes irrational thoughts using ABC model.
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What study is used to show how DB can be treated cognitively?
Ellis
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What was the aim of Ellis's study?
To compare the effectiveness of cognitive and dug therapy in treating depression (DB)
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What was the sample of Ellis's study?
44 people with drepression
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What was the method of Ellis's study?
Independent measures design with random allocation to cognitive or drug therapy. Lasted for 12 weeks.
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What were the findings of Ellis's study?
Both groups showed significant decrease in symptoms but cognitive group showed greater improvement on self-report and observer based ratings.
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What did Ellis's study conclude?
Cognitive treatment leads to better treatment of depression shown by fewer symptoms and better adherence to treatment, showing the effectiveness of treating DB cognitively.
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What is the DSM classification system?

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American Psychiatric Association, mental health only, 17 major categories, multi-axial system (1:Main disorder, 2:Personality/Developmental, 3:Relevant physical disorders, 4:Psychosocial/environmental factors, 5: Functioning level scale from 1-100)

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What is the ICD classification system?

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What are the advantages and disadvantages of classification systems?

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What study is used when defining dysfunctional behaviour?

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