Durkheim's functionalist theory

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What two main mechanisms does society need to have in order to achieve social solidarity?
1. Socialisation 2.Social control
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How does socialisation help achieve social solidarity?
It instils shared culture into its members which means that they will internalise the same norms and values. This will cause them to believe that it is right to act in the way that society requires.
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How does social control help achieve social solidarity?
People are coerced into behaving in a way expected of society by positive sanctions (rewards) and negative sanctions (punishments).
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However, functionalists don't see crime as wholly...
...negative
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Whilst functionalists see crime as destabilising society, they also see it as...
... inevitable and universal
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Therefore, there is no such thing as...
...a society free of crime and deviance
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A crime-free society is...
.... a contradiction in terms
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Durkheim: "Crime is normal...
....an integral part of healthy societies."
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What are the 2 reasons why crime and deviance are found in all societies?
1. Not everyone is (equally) effectively socialised 2. There is a diversity of lifestyles and values
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How does ineffective socialisation lead to crime?
Not everyone is instilled with the same norms and values so certain individuals will be more prone to deviate
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How doe the diversity of lifestyles and values lead to crime?
Different groups create their own subcultures who have distinct norms and values. Although in their norms and values something may seem normal, in mainstream society's norms and values it may be seen as deviant.
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In Durkheim's view, in modern society, there is a tendency towards...
...... anomie (normelessness)
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This causes the rules governing behaviour to become....
...weak and less clear-cut
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This is due to the fact that modern societies have a...
...complex, specialised division of labour
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How does a complex and specialised division of labour relate to crime and deviance?
As people who have different divisions of labour become increasingly different from one another, weakens the collective conscience (shared culture). This means that norms and values will differ and people will deviate.
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What crime does Durkheim see as majorly a result of anomie in particular?
Suicide
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What does Durkheim believe are the 2 main positive functions of crime?
1.Boundary maintenance 2.Adaptation and change
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How does boundary maintenance work?
Crime and deviance provokes a reaction fom society and unites its members in condemnation against the wrongdoer. This reaffirms the values of the law-abiding majority and discourages others from commiting crime and deviance
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As a result, boundary maintenance reinforces...
...social solidarity
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An example of where boundary maintenance is performed in the criminal justice system is...
.... In courtroom rituals through dramatisation of the wrongdoing and publicly stigmatising the offender.
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Which sociologist has (similarly) examined the importance of the role that media plays in dramatisation of evil?
Cohen
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In his view, media coverage of criminal and deviant acts/behaviour often create...
...'folk devils:" (a person/group who are portrayed by media as outsiders/deviants and are often scapegoats for social problems.)
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All change starts with...
...an act of deviance
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What does he believe this means about social control?
That it must try not to completely stifle individuals with new ideas/values/ways of living.
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People who are originally seen trying to change/challenge existing norms/values will first appear as...
...deviant
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If those with new ideas are supressed, society will eventually...
...stagnate and be unable to make necessary adaptations
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What does Durkheim say about very high or very low crime rates?
That they are both undesirable
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What, according to him, do these patterns show?
The malfunctioning of the social system
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What does too much crime cause?
Destabilisation of society
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What does too little crime cause?
Not enough individual freedom and prevention of change.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How does socialisation help achieve social solidarity?

Back

It instils shared culture into its members which means that they will internalise the same norms and values. This will cause them to believe that it is right to act in the way that society requires.

Card 3

Front

How does social control help achieve social solidarity?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

However, functionalists don't see crime as wholly...

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Whilst functionalists see crime as destabilising society, they also see it as...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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