Duress

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  • Created by: Edward
  • Created on: 22-02-16 12:43
Hasan (2005)
the test= (i) was the def impelled to act as he did because he reasonably feared that, if he didn’t, he would be subjected to deathj or serious personal injury? (ii) would a sober person of reasonable firmness, sharing the def’s characteristics, have
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Bowen (1996)
the reasonable man in (ii) may share certain characteristics of the def
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Howe (1987)
duress is no defence to murder
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Wright (2000)
The threat of death or serious injury need not be directed at the def himself, but may be directed at his immediate family or someone close to him
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Hasan (2005)
The harm must reasonably be expected to follow immediately or almost immediately
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Hudson and Taylor (1971)
The threat would be imminent simply if it were operating on the def’s mind at the time of the offence
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Abdul-Hussain (1999)
In order to rely on duress, the def must have had no reasonable opportunity to take evasive action
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Valderrama-Vega (1985)
Where there are accumulated threats, the defence is still available to def provided he would not have acted had it not been for the threats of death/serious injury
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Cole (1994)
There must be a link between the duress and the offence for defence to succeed-e.g.def told by money lenders to get money or they will harm def, def’s gf and baby- def robbed bank-def didn’t have to-could have used other lawful options
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Aikens (2003)
A threat to punch may not be sufficient
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Graham (1982)
The def’s age and sex can be taken into account
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Bowen (1996)
The def’s timidity is an irrelevant characteristic
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Flatt (1996)
The def’s self-induced drug addiction is an irrelevant characteristic
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Hegarty (1994)
Emotional instability and a grossly elevated neurotic state are irrelevant characteristics
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Hurst (1995)
Possible effects of sexual abuse as a child is irrelevant
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Horne (1994)
Vulnerability is an irrelevant characteristic
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Emery (1993)
PTSD is a relevant characteristic
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Fitzpatrick (1977)
Defence of duress was not available as the def voluntarily joined an organisation which he knew to officially categorised as a terrorist organisation
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Sharp (1987)
Where def voluntarily joins an criminal organisation or gang which he knows to be violent., or might pressure def, the defence of duress is not available for offence committed as active member
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Shepherd (1987)
Duress will be available if the def voluntarily associate with a criminal gang not known to use violent methods
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

the reasonable man in (ii) may share certain characteristics of the def

Back

Bowen (1996)

Card 3

Front

duress is no defence to murder

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The threat of death or serious injury need not be directed at the def himself, but may be directed at his immediate family or someone close to him

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The harm must reasonably be expected to follow immediately or almost immediately

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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