Drugs that act on the nervous system

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Excitatory Neurotransmitters (speed up)
noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, Acetylcholine, Glutamate
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Inhibitory Neurotransmitters (slow down)
GABA, glycine
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Nitrous Oxide (laughing gas)
potent at relieving pain (analgesic), not potent enough to induce general anaesthesia, used with other drugs, used during child birth.
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Isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane
administered using a vapouriser, all have rapid onset and recovery,
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Isoflurane
does not depress the CV system. It produces a good degree of muscle relaxation, and may be used without muscle relaxants
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desflurane
irritating to the airways and may increase secretions, not recommended in people with respiratory problems,
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sevoflurane
rapid onset and clearance, fewer side effects
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Propofol (non- barbiturate)
used for day surgery as it has a rapid recovery time, hypnosis after 40 secs, convulsions and bradycardia
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Thiopental (barbiturate)
loose consciousness for 5-10 minutes, brief procedures, low metabolism, sedative last up to 24 hours
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Etomidate
alternative to thiopental, muscle movements minimised, suppression of the adrenalcortical
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Ketamine
alleviates anxiety and shock, bad dreams and hallucinations during recovery, increased heart rate and blood pressure
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Benzodiazepines
oral, i.v., i.m., rectal
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midazolam
conscious sedation, pre- med, may cause nausea
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Diazepam
widely used to treat anxiety, Cause confusion/ drowsiness/ depression + sexual fantasies!
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Temazepam
short acting with little or no hangover, taken orally, may cause hypotension or constipation, no excessive sedation in low doses.
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Disadvantages of hypnotics
lead to dependence, respiratory depression, interact with alcohol, cross the placenta.
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Neuromuscular Blocking drugs
block the transmission in motor nerves, prevent muscle contraction, assisted respiration needed, drugs affected muscles used for breathing
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Narcotic (opioid) analgesics
fentanyl, alfentanil (Rapifen), remifentanil, morphine
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fentanyl, alfentanil (Rapifen), remifentanil, morphine
act on CNS (opioid receptors) to relieve pain, euphoric, different preparations, nausea, reduced breathing rate, small risk of addiction
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Lidocaine
widely used, often in dental surgery
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Prilocaine
mixed with lidocaine to form a cream, surface anaesthesia, numbs the skin
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Side effects of local anaesthetics
abnormal heart beat, convulsions, restlessness, severe (cardio respiratory arrest)
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Antidepressants
3 types: tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, monoamine oxidase inhibitors
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Tricyclic antidepressants:imipramine, nortriptyline, doxepin
dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, mental confusion, arrhythmias
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Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors:fluoxetine, citalopram, sertraline, paroxetine
headache, nausea, convulsions, diarrhoea, dizziness
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Monoamine oxidase inhibitors:phenelzine, tranylcypromine
breaks down neurotransmitters, interacts with tyramine containing foods, nausea, dizziness and insomnia
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General anaesthetics: Gases
Nitrous oxide, Isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane
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General Anaesthetics: intravenous
Propofol, thiopental, etomidate, ketamine
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Anxiolytics/ hypnotics
Benzodiazepines
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

GABA, glycine

Back

Inhibitory Neurotransmitters (slow down)

Card 3

Front

potent at relieving pain (analgesic), not potent enough to induce general anaesthesia, used with other drugs, used during child birth.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

administered using a vapouriser, all have rapid onset and recovery,

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

does not depress the CV system. It produces a good degree of muscle relaxation, and may be used without muscle relaxants

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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