Drug Addiction

What was the prevalence rate of drug use in 2013?
246 million used at least one illicit substance in 2013.
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How many are problem drug users in the UK?
27 million
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Illicit drug use % for the year 2014-15?
8.6% adults aged 16-59, 19.4% adults 16-24.
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Addiction is formally defined by what?
chronic relapse
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Positive reinforcement is more powerful under what condition?
The closer to the stimuli, the more effective it is.
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What is the brain region predominantly associated with positive reinforcement?
Nucleus Accumbens
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Where do the first neural changes occur leading to drug addiction and what does this involve?
VTA, caused by additional AMPA receptors in postsynaptic membranes of DA neurons
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Which receptors mediate neural changes?
NDMA receptors
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Which neural changes underpin compulsive behaviour?
The Dorsal Striatum and Basal Ganglia
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A single injection of a drug causes changes in the VTA that persist for around... ?
5 days
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What is negative reinforcement?
withdrawal symptoms encouraging relapse
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The changes in mediation of neurotransmitters in addicts causes what upon withdrawal?
seizures
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What does the opponent process theory suggest?
Withdrawal symptoms are opposite to the positive effects of drugs and contribute to relapse.
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Volkow et al. found that activity in what area was lower in normal subjects during abstinence from cocaine?
Medial PFC
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Bolla et al. found that activity in the PFC was correlated to cocaine use each week in what way?
negatively correlated: more cocaine taken, lower activity in medial PFC.
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Franklin et al. found the average decrease of grey matter in regions of PFC in cocaine users was around what %?
5-11%
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De Ruiter found that loss of behavioural control in addicts was linked with which brain area?
dorsomedial PFC.
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What is Hyperfrontality?
Decreased activity in the PFC
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What % schizophrenic patients have a substance abuse disorder?
up to half. 70-90% at least nicotine dependent
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smokers with psychiatric disorders account for what percentage of the population?
7%, consuming 34% of all cigarettes
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Drug related cues/ stimuli activate which brain areas?
Anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, ínsula & dorsolateral PFC
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The release of CRH (cortisol) is linked with drug addiction for neurobiological reasons because...?
It is linked with enhanced activation of dopaminergic neurons
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Why are adolescents more vulnerable to drug problems?
Maturational age of PFC; more likely to engage in risky/compulsive behaviours.
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The Analgesic effects of Opiates are caused by receptors in what brain area?
Periaquaductal gray matter
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Hypothermic effects of opiates are caused by receptors in what brain area?
Pre Optic Area
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The sedative effects of Opiates are caused by receptors in what brain area?
Mesencephalic Reticular Formation
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The reinforcing effects of Opiates are caused by receptors in what brain area?
VTA & NAc
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6hrs post withdrawal, opiate addicts will experience?
Craving & Anxiety
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14hrs post withdrawal, opiate addicts will experience?
Yawning, sweating, running nose and teary eyes
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16hrs post withdrawal, opiate addicts will experience?
All pre 16hrs, with pupil dilation, goose bumps, hot & cold flushes, aching bones and muscles and loss of appetite
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24-36hrs post withdrawal, opiate addicts will experience?
All pre 24hrs, insomnia, raised BP, increased temperature, pulse rate increased, respiratory rate and depth increased, restless, nausea
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26-48hrs post withdrawal, opiate addicts will experience?
All pre 36hrs, vomiting diarrhoea, weight loss, spontaneous ejaculations & ******, increased blood sugar.
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What are the main effects of cocaine caused by?
DA Agonism: blocking of reuptake, but also directly stimulates release.
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What are the long term effects of cocaine use?
decrease in number of DA transporters to caudate nucleus+ putamen = increased risk of parkinson's
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What are the two treatments for cocaine abuse?
DA receptor agonists administered to NAc to reduce reinforcing effects, Destruction of terminals in NAc to reduce reinforcing effects
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What are the acute positive symptoms of amphetamine consumption?
Increased alertness & arousal, euphoria and increased sense of wellbeing
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What are the main effects of amphetamine caused by?
its effects as a DA agonist (directly stimulates release)
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What are the chronic effects of Amphetamine consumption?
Hallucinations and paranoid psychosis
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What are the hallucinations in amphetamine consumption caused by?
stereotaphy in the nigrostriatal DA pathway
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What are the paranoid psychoses caused by amphetamine consumption caused by?
atopsis in cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus.
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Agonist therapy for opiate addiction?
Methadone
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Antagonist therapy for opiate addiction?
Naltrexone
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How does immunisation against opiates work?
conjugation of heroin to foreign protein, stimulates immune system to create antibodies against the drug.
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Card 2

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How many are problem drug users in the UK?

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27 million

Card 3

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Illicit drug use % for the year 2014-15?

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Card 4

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Addiction is formally defined by what?

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Card 5

Front

Positive reinforcement is more powerful under what condition?

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