DNA- Deoxyribonucleic acid

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  • Created by: Abc312
  • Created on: 23-04-18 19:24
What is DNA?
The chemical that the genetic material of a cell is made up of.
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What is the structure of DNA?
It is a polymer. It is made in a double helix structure.
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What are chromosomes?
Long strands of DNA
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What is a gene?
A small section of DNA found on a chromosome.
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What does a gene do?
Tells the cell to make a particular sequence of amino acids that are put together to make a specific protein.
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What is a genome?
The full set of genetic material in an organism.
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Why is it important for scientists to understand the full human genome?
It allows scientists to identify genes relating to diseases and help develop treatments for them. It can also be used to trace human migration patterns from the past.
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What are the repeating units in DNA called?
Nucleotides
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What are nucleotides made from?
One sugar molecule, one phosphate molecule and one base.
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What do the sugar and phosphate molecules do in DNA strands?
They are the backbone and alternate each other, each sugar and phosphate molecule has one base attached.
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What are the four different bases?
A, T, C, G
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What do the bases link to?
Each base links to one on the other strand of the helix. A always pairs to T and C always pairs to G.
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How is an amino acid coded?
A sequence of three bases from the gene.
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What does the order of bases in an amino acid control?
The order that they are assembled in order to make a particular protein.
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What do non-coding parts of a gene do?
Turn genes on and off, this controls wether they are made to make a protein (expressed).
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Where does protein synthesis happen and how are the amino acids brought there?
It happens in the ribosomes. They are brought by carrier molecules.
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What happens when a protein chain is formed?
It folds into a unique shape enabling it to do its job.
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What jobs can proteins have?
Enzymes (biological catalysts), Hormones (carry messages around the body), Structural proteins( physically strong) e.g. collagen.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the structure of DNA?

Back

It is a polymer. It is made in a double helix structure.

Card 3

Front

What are chromosomes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a gene?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does a gene do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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