Nucleic acids

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  • Created by: amm242
  • Created on: 15-05-18 12:12
Descrice nucleotide structrure
Pentose sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen-containing organic base
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How are nucleotides joined?
Condensation reactions form phosphodiester bond between deoyribose sugar and phosphate group
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How is RNA different to DNA?
Single short polynucleotide chain and uracil replaces thymine
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Name DNA's four organic bases
Adenine & thymine, cytosine & guanine
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Why is DNA a stable molecule?
Phosphodiester backbone protects reactive bases, hydrogen bonds form bridges between complementary organic bases
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Why is DNA described as antiparallel?
Strands run in opposite directions, one 3' to 5' the other 5' to 3'
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What is the function of DNA?
Hereditary material that passes genetic information from cell to cell and through generations
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Why must DNA be replicated before nuclear division?
Ensures all daughter cells have correct genetic information
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What is semi-conservative replication?
DNA strands unwind and seperate so each new copy has one new strand and one old strand
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What is the function of DNA helicase?
Breaks H bonds inbetween bases to split the two strands
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What happens to the free nucleotides?
Specific base pairing to complementary bases
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What is the function of DNA polymerase?
Joins nucleotides with phosphodiester bonds
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What is the structure of ATP?
Adenine, ribose and three phosphate groups
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How does ATP store energy?
Bonds between phosphate groups are unstable (low Ea) so are easily broken to release lots of energy
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What is the function of ATP hydrolase?
Catalyses hydrolysis reaction of ATP to form ADP, Pi & energy
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How is ATP reformed?
Condensation reaction using ATP synthase to add Pi to ADP
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Why is ATP a good immediate energy source?
Releases less energy than glucose so quantities more manageable, much quicker to hydrolyse
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Name one process ATP is used in
Metabolic processes - provides energy to make macromolecules from basic units
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Why is water a dipolar molecule?
Oxygen has -ve charge, Hydrogen has +ve charge
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How does water bond to each other?
Opposite poles attract forming H bonds
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Why is water difficult to heat up?
Specific heat capacity makes sure small temperature changes do not effect external and internal conditions
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What is latent heat vaporisation?
Lots of energy is needed to evaporate small amount of water - sweating is effective
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Why is it important that water is has cohesion and tension?
Cohesion - sticks together so can be pulled up xylem vessels, tension - surface supports pond skaters
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Why is water important in metabolism?
Hydrolysis reactions, photosynthesis and aqueous medium
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What is the function of iron ions?
Haemoglobin - transport oxygen
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What is the function of phosphate ions?
DNA structure and energy stores in ATP
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What is the function of hydrogen ions?
Determine pH of solutions for enzymes
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What is the fucntion of sodium ions?
Transport glucose
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How are nucleotides joined?

Back

Condensation reactions form phosphodiester bond between deoyribose sugar and phosphate group

Card 3

Front

How is RNA different to DNA?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name DNA's four organic bases

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why is DNA a stable molecule?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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