DNA and proteins

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Amino acids
The building blocks of proteins containing an amino group (NH2) and a carboxylic acid -COOH attached to a carbon atom and an R group that varies between amino acids.
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Peptide bond
a bond formed between amino acid through a condensation reaction
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Dipeptide bond
two amino acids joined by a condensation reaction
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Polypeptide bond
a chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
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Fibrous proteins
proteins that have long parallel polypeptide chains with occasional cross-linkages that form into fibers with little tertiary structure
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Dilsufide bond
strong covalent bond formed as a result of an oxidation reaction between sulfur groups in cysteine of methionine molecules which are close together in the structure of a polypeptide
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Globular proteins
large proteins with complex tertiary and sometimes quaternary structures that are folded into a spherical shape
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Haemoglobin
large, conjugated protein that is involved in the transportation of oxygen in the blood and gives the erthyrocytes their red colour
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Collagen
strong, fibrous protein with a triple helix structure
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Denaturation
the loss of 3D shape of a protein as a result of pH or temperature change
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prosthetic group
molecule that is incorperated in a conjugated protein
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glycoprotein
a protein that has a carbohydrate prosthetic group
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protease
a protein digesting enzyme
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lipoprotein
a protein with a lipid prosthetic group
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nucleic acids
polymers made up of many nucleotide monomer units that carry all the information needed to form new cells
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phosphodiester bonds
the bond formed between the phosphate group of one nucleotide and the sugar of the next nucleotide in a condensation reaction
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genome
the entire genetic material of an organism
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replication
copying itself completely
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DNA helicase
the enzyme involved in DNA replication that unzips the two strands of DNA
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DNA polymerase
the enzyme that is involved in DNA replication that lines up the new nucleotides along to DNA template strands
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DNA ligase
an enzyme that is involved in DNA replication that catalyses the formation of phosophodiester bonds between nucleotides
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Translation
the process bt which proteins are produced, via RNA, using the genetic code found in the DNA. It takes place on the ribosomes
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Ribosome
the site of protein synthesis in the cell
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triplet code
the code of three bases, and is the basis of the genetic information in the DNA
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Gene
a sequence of bases on a DNA molecule
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codon
a sequence of three bases in DNA or mRNA
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complementry strand
the strand of mRNA formed that complements the DNA acting as the coding strand
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degenerate code
A code in which several code words have the same meaning. The genetic code is degenerate because there are many instances in which different codons specify the same amino acid.
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non-overlapping code
the genetic code is read as ATG, CTA instead of ATG, TGC, CTA
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overlapping code
the genetic code is read as ATG, TGC, CTA instead of ATG, CTA
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Messenger RNA (mRNA)
formed in the nucleus and carries the genetic code out into the cytoplasm
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The anti-sense strand
the DNA strand that codes for proteins
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DNA directed RNA polymerase
the enzyme that polymerises nucleotide units to form RNA in a sequence determined by the antisense strand of DNA
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Transfer RNA (tRNA)
molecules that are small units of RNA that pick up specific amino acids from the cytoplasm and transport them to the surface of the ribosome to align with the mRNA strand
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anticodon
a sequence of three bases on tRNA that correspond to the bases in the mRNA codon
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Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
the RNA that makes up 50% of the structure of the ribosome
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polysomes
groups of ribosomes, joined by a thread of mRNA that can produce large quantities of particular proteins
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mutation
a permanent change in the DNA of an organism
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gametes
haploid sex cells produced by meiosis that fuse to form a diploid cell - zygote - in sexual reproduction
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point/gene mutation
a change in one or a small number of nucleotides affecting a single gene
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substitution
one base in a gene is substituted for another
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deletion
a base is completely lost
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insertion
an extra base is added into a gene which may be a repeat or a different base
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chromosomal mutations
changes in the position of entire genes within a chromosome
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whole chromosome mutation
the loss or duplication of a whole chromosome
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sickle cell disease
a genetic disease affecting the protein chains making up the haemoglobin in the red blood cells
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mutagen
anything that increases the rate of mutation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

a bond formed between amino acid through a condensation reaction

Back

Peptide bond

Card 3

Front

two amino acids joined by a condensation reaction

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

a chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

proteins that have long parallel polypeptide chains with occasional cross-linkages that form into fibers with little tertiary structure

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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