DNA and Protein Synthesis

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  • Created by: Ami_Bull
  • Created on: 27-01-16 11:08
What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribonucleaic acid
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What is a nucleotide?
A subunit of DNA made from a pentose sugar, phosphate group and a nitrogen contaitng organic base
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What is indirect evidence for evolution?
The strucutre of DNA and the way it carries it is the same in all organsims.
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What sugar is in DNA?
Deoxyribose
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What is deoxyribose?
A pentose sugar (5 carbons) with one less oxygen attatched
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Why is DNA a highly charged molecule?
It contains a phosphate group which is negatively charged.
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What is electrophoresis?
A technique for seperating DNA fragments based on its charge
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What are the four organic bases in DNA?
Adenine, thymine, guanin and cytosine
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By what reaction do two nucleotides join together?
Condensation reaction
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What bond is formed beween two deoxyriboses?
Phosphodiester
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By what bond are complementary bases joined?
Hydrogen
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What bases pairs with adenine (DNA)?
Thyimine
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What base pairs with Guanine?
Cytosine
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How many hydrogen bonds does adenine and thymine form?
Two
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How many hydrogen bonds does guanine and cytosine form?
Three
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Name two purine bases?
Adenine and guanine
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Name two pyramidine bases?
Thymine and cytosine
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What is the name given to the two DNA strands that run in opposite diretion?
Anti-parallel strands
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What is a histone?
A protein that DNA wraps around to form a rod like strucuture (chromosomes)
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What is a locus?
A specific position on a chromosome
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What are introns?
Non-coding DNA
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What are coding DNA called?
Exons
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What is a genome?
A complete set of genes in a cell
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What is a proteome?
The full range of proteins a cell is able to produce
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What does RNA stand for?
Ribonucleaic acid
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What is the difference between RNA and DNA
DNA contains deoxyribose which has one less oxygen on the second carbon
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What base pairs with adenine (RNA)?
Uracil
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What does mRNA stand for?
Messenger RNA
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What does tRNA stand for?
Transfer RNA
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What does rRNA stand for?
Ribosomal RNA
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What does rRNA do?
Forms the strucuture of ribosomes
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How many polynucletide strands are in each: DNA, tRNA, mRNA
DNA=2 tRNA=1 mRNA=1
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Which contains hydrogen bonds: DNA, tRNA, mRNA
DNA and tRNA
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What does ATP stand for?
Adenosine triphosphate
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Why is ATP phosphorylated nucleotide?
It contains three phosphate groups
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What is the structure of ATP?
3 phosphate groups, ribose and adenine
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Where does protein synthesis receive its energy?
From the hydrolysis of ATP
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How is ATP hydrolysed?
Water and the enzyme ATPase breaks the bonds between the second and third phosphate group
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What is phosphorylation?
The transfer of a phosphate group to another molecule, making it more reactive
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How is ATP resynthesised?
ADP is condensed using the enzyme ATPsynthase
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Where does the energy for ATP synthesis come from?
The hydrolysis of lipids and carbohydrates
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What is transcription?
The production of mRNA from DNA
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What is the process of transcription?
DNA molecule unwinds and hydrogen bonds between the strands break. Bases on RNA nucleotides form new bond with the complementary base pairs on the DNA strand.RNA polymerase joins the RNA nucleotides together
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What is functional RNA?
RNA that is not translated into proteins?
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What is post-transcriptional processing?
When pre-mRNA is spliced to remove the non-coding sections and then the coding sections are 'edited' together to produce a mRNA molecule.
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What is the process of translation?
mRNA moves to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. At least one ribosome attaches to the mRNA molecule and reads its bases and then assembles amino acids. Peptide bonds form betwen the amino acids and form a polypeptide. The polypeptide is released
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What is the funcion of tRNA?
tRNA brings an amino acid to the mRNA molecule
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a nucleotide?

Back

A subunit of DNA made from a pentose sugar, phosphate group and a nitrogen contaitng organic base

Card 3

Front

What is indirect evidence for evolution?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What sugar is in DNA?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is deoxyribose?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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