What categories can observations be made into (give 4)
perceptual, physics, psychology, biology
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At what age do children begin pretend play?
18 months
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Children begin sociodramatic play at 2.5 years, when do they typically have imaginary friends?
28% of children have them at 3/4 years and 31% have them at 6/7 years
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What can imaginary companions be used for?
To deflect blame, vent anger, convey reluctant info and for companionship
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Nativists say we are born with a biology module to organise observations into knowledge of living things since we pick up this kind of information v. rapidly. What do empiricists say?
That knowledge of living things comes from observations since a lot of questions are asked between 3-5 years and children's understanding reflects cultural views
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What did Oakes and Cohen (1995) find out about causal reasoning?
6-10 months olds have an understanding that inanimate objects can't move independently
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Sobel and Kirkhaim (2006) found that 2 year olds are able to...
Work out which blicket detector music will come out of because they can make inferences
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What are 2 year olds better at than 1 year olds according to Chen and Siegler (2000)?
At using tools to get an object because they are more able to generalise beyond observations
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What do magic tricks tell s about causal reasoning?
By 5 years find them entertaining because understand when there are violations of expectations
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How do nativists say ToM develops?
We are born with a module that develops in the first 5 years which gives us an understanding of other's mental states
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What do empiricists say about ToM?
Comes from social interactions and information processing skills: that people with siblings outperform others here supports this idea
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When do children pass second order false belief tasks?
Posner and Wimner found only 10 year olds when prompted could do this
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What evidence is there that children probably have some ToM before the can pass false belief tasks?
Philips et al (2002) found 12 month olds could do the Kitty task
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Can 2 year olds do the Sally-Anne task?
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What evidence is there that 2 year olds can understand that desires influence behaviours?
They understand that another person who likes trucks will prefer to play with this even if they prefer dolls
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Can 3 year olds do the smarties task? What does this show?
No. Can't do false belief tasks yet because still egocentric.
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What evidence is there that infants fail false belief tasks because they are socially inept?
Perner and Leekam (2008) found they could pass false belief tasks when they were tested in an appropriate format. Goldstein and Winner (2011) found people who act have better ToM so likely to do with social experience.
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What evidence is there that false belief tasks aren't just about social adeptness?
False Sign Task (come back to)
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What evidence is there that false beliefs are difficult because infants can't deal with counterfactual info?
Riggs et al (1998) (come back to)
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Who found a correlation between lack of executive function and inability to do false belief tasks?
Carlson and Moses (2001) (come back to) studies beyond childhood by Dumontheil et al (2010) and German and Hehman (2005) support this
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What happens when the dorsolateral PFC matures?
Spatial representations become more durable
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What did Piaget say about egocentricism? Is there a need for visual feedback
Only get out of this phase by self locomotion. No need for visual feedback since blind infants just as good at navigating.
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At what age can children use multiple landmarks for navigation?
5 years
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What can 3 months olds use knowledge of temporal order for?
To make predictions
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In terms of time, what do 4 months old have an understanding of?
A sense of duration: 5 seconds
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When can children make precise discriminations of temporal order?
By 5-9 years
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What happens during Piaget's preoperational stage in terms of time?
They get distracted about time reasoning because they only focus on one dimension at a time and attention span is limited. Become proficient at 5 years.
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Where did Nativists say we have a numerical reasoning module?
The intraparietal sulcus
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At what age do children get an understanding of addition and subtraction for less than 3 objects?
5 months
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Why doesn't numerical reasoning really start to develop until 3-5 years?
Need to develop ability to form mental images (Haith and Benson, 1998)
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Piaget thought infants only have a basic understanding of magnitude. What do we know now?
They inderstand time, numbers, space and there are overlapping representations of these concepts in the intraparietal sulcus.
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Ruff an Capozolli (2003) tested infants at 10,26 and 42 months on the types of attention they used and the types of distractors that affected them. What did they find?
Causal attention decreased over time and settled, focused attention increased. They became less distracted over time. At 42 months only visual modality was distracted. Some distractors became beneficial.
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What did Peltota et al (2008) find out about attention?
Infants look longer at fearful faces
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Miler and Seier (1994) did the find the lion" study. What did they find 8 year olds did that 3 year olds didn't?
8 year olds used selective looking.
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Why did Rovee-collier use strings on legs?
To test memory duration in preverbal infants
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How long does it take to encode novel stimuli at 6 months compared to 12 months?
20-30 seconds at 6 months compared to 10-15 seconds at 12 months
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Fagan (1974) found 5-6 months old are able to encode more complex stimuli than 2-3 months old but what is the downside of this?
Longer familiarisation time neeed
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What did Coyle and Bjorkland (1997) find out?
Number of retrieval strategies such as rehearsal, organisation and elaboration increases with age
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Kally and Leslie (2005) found 6 month olds are able to encode geometric forms and their relation to specific spatial locations over time. But what can they not do?
Can't encode information about more than spatial location at one time. Can only store info about a single object's representation in space
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What is the cognitive explanation for why memory increases over development?
The trace integrity framework
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What is the biological processing account for the increase in memory during development?
Memory systems form.
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What are Jeanne Chilli's 5 stages of reading?
Pre reading, initial reading, confirmation + fluency, reading to learn, multiple viewpoints + construction
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What happens in the development of maths ability once initial concepts are understood?
procedural fluency than use of strategies
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What does the shrinking machine study show?
Get better at finding the hidden object with time because use of strategies develops and exec. processes allow understanding of spatial relations
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Why does drawing improve with age?
Better motor ability, schemas, attention, follow cultural conventions
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What did Wilatts (1990) find to show 1 year olds have planning skills?
Able to remove a physical barrier
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What problem solving skill can infants use by 3-4 years?
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How do 1.5-2 year olds generalise beond images to the environment?
Use symbolic or material cognitive tools
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Who found 7 year olds are confused about the functional relevance of cultural tools until 7 years?
De Loache et al
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What kind of executive functions develop to allow better problem solving?
Schemas, Inhibition, Working memory, Language
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How has it been shown that infants need to have an awareness of dual representations in order to make correspondances between function and object?
De Loache (1987) found 3 years but ot 2.5 years could find an object hidden in a room when the room was made smaller
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What IQ do you need to have to be considered gifted?
Abover 130
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Give 2 examples of organic retardation?
Downsyndrome and fragile x syndrome
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What is familial retardation?
Something that arises in infancy and characterised by IQ below 70. Assessment is based on how well the can function. 95% can hold down jobs in the future but 1-2% can only just manage self care
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Why might children learn better in groups?
Because of socio-cognitive conflict: learn from range of perspectives. This stimulates deeper thinking which has long term benefits.
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What is the constructivist approach to learning?
It emphasises child's own actions. One example is Vygotsky who thinks learning happens when content made meaningful.
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What is needed to learn?
Planning and coordinated attention to take in new information and integrate it with older learning
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What happens with children who have poor working memory?
Withdrawn, little progress made because unable to concentrate
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What does the US use to improve working memory?
"Tools of the mind": 40 activities designed to improve attention control and regulation of behaviour
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How do you calculate IQ?
mental age/chronological age X 100
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When are bayley scales used to test intelligence and what does it focus on?
1-3.5 months, tests mental, moto and behavioural skills
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Why might bayley scales not be a very good predictor of intelligence?
Relies on aspects of intelligence not yet fully developed
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What is Fagan's method of testing intelligence?
Use novelty tests to assess encoding ability and ability to use mental representations
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Is Fagan's method a good predictor of later intelligence?
Yes, reasonable. Can be used accross cultures
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What is good about the Stanford-Binet test?
Introduced the mental age concept. There are different versions for different ages.
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What do Weschler's Intelligence scales test?
verbal, executive function, arithmetic, perception
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Who do the Weschler scales test?
One for children, mainly those over 6, another for adults
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Are Weschler's scales reliable and valid?
Not v good at predicting later intelligence so not reliable and only indirect assessment of IQ so not valid
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What are Weschler's scales good for?
Disorder detection
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What is Sternberg's approach to studying intelligence?
Analytic vs practical vs creative abilities
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Who came up with the multiple intelligences approach?
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What is Carrolls 3-striatum theory?
Spearmen's G broken down into multiple intelligences.
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What are the 3 features of the idea that intelligence occurs from genotype-env. interactions?
Passive: environment promotes cetain phenotypes. Evocative: child's interests influence adult's decisions to encourage certain phenotypes. Active: child follows up their interest themself so certain phenotypes emerge.
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What 4 aspects of intelligence came out of the Home Observation for Measurement of Environment?
Micro, Meso, Exo, Macro
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What is the Micro category?
Family environment. Generally if family environment stays stable, so does IQ between 2-11 years
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What is the Meso category?
Schooling. I.e 7 year old in year 2 has higher IQ than 7 year old in year 1
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What is the Exo category?
Social wealth. I.e people in povety tend to have lower IQs at 5 years.
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What is the Macro category?
Ethnicity, i.e. back children tend to have lower IQs just because of the racial stereotypes
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How many people does williams syndrome affect?
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What is williams syndrome caused by?
Deletions of alleles on chromosome 7 causing abnormal brain development
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What are the 4 main physical symptoms of williams syndrome?
premature aging, heart problems, poor eyesight, petite
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What is the IQ of people with williams syndrom?
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Where do Williams' syndrom deficits lie?
Poor ToM in terms of irony,poor global spatial processing, unusual language with errors
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What suggests Williams syndrome have more of cortex devoted to facial processing than normal?
Unusual looking at 2-3 months
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In what way is there a double dissociation between williams syndrome and down syndrome?
Spatial processing: people with down syndrome are good at global processing, poor at local
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What is the cognitive genetics approach to developmental disorders?
Oinker. Can map genes for disorders on to phenotypes so can learn a lot about genes when discrete cognitive modules are impacted in disorders with clear bio causes
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What is the neuroconstructivist approach to developmental disorders?
Karmiloff-Smith says learn v little from developmental disorder because hardly ever pure, could have env. influence and can't predict adult cognition
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What is the local processing bias explanation of williams syndrome?
More of brain developed to attend to social stimuli at the cost of tasks requiring global strategies
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What is the problem with the local processing bias explanation of william's syndrome?
It can't explain the language findings
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What is the dorsal stream deficit explanation of william's syndrome?
That due to smaller and higher cell density in dorsal stream and reduced structural connectivity there is less dorsal stream activity (during square completion tasks and object vs location tasks)
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What is an intellectual disorder?
Imapaied laguage and cognition so IQ less than 70 an significant deficits in self care and interpersonal skills... Onset occurs before 18 years
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How many people are affected by intellectual disorders?
1-3% of general population
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What is fragile x syndrome?
Abnormal x chromosome causes hyperactivity, gaze avoidance, pervasive speech and large head/ears/testicles
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How many people are affected by fragile x syndrome?
1/4000 males, 1/8000 females
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What are 3 prenatal causes of developmental disability?
foetal alcohol syndrome, disease and malnutrition?
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What kind of cause of developmental disability is anoxia?
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Give 2 postnatal causes of developmental disability?
malnutrition and head injury
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How many people with single gene-cause developmental disabilities have tuberous sclerosis?
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What is Lesch-nykam syndrome?
a recessive form of developmental disorder
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What causes down syndrome?
47 copies of chromosome 21 rather than 46
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What increases the risk of developing downsyndrome? and how can you test for this?
An older mother because she's had more exposure to toxins and has hormonal changes. Test for downsyndrome using blood test during 1st trimester
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What does socio-cultural training do?
tarkets specific learning deficits using task analysis and positive reinforcement. Uses communicative training. Supportive employment.
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What is the National Head Start Programme?
An early intervention that combines social, education, mudicine and nutrition. An intensive preschool proqramme. Children leaving it tend to have IQ 5 oints higher at age 3 than they otherwise would.
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What is the early medical intervention used for fragile x syndrome?
block glutamate receptors in the amygdala to normalise neurons. To do this se prenatal gene therapy. But this has a risk of causing mutations.
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What is the memory format change theory of childhood amnesia?
Language development introduces new ways to format knowledge and structure recall. So unable to access preverbal info with new strategies.
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What is the neural change hypothesis of childhood amnesia?
Mamories unable to trransfer to LTM because hippocampus is immature so can't store memories. Also unable to use source monitoring to ignore irrelevant info because of immature PFC
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What is the cueing hypothesis of childhood amnesia?
Only unable to recall info because not given appropriate cues. These tend to be nonverbal.
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What happens between 3 and 5 years to aid storage/retrieval of episodic memories?
Explicit rehearsal of past events. Develop narrative skills to create more elaborate representations to make use of more cues. Use memories to create conversation. These new long term episodic memories give rise to a sense of self
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What did Simcock and Hayne (2003) do?
To test whether infants aged 2/4 rely on verbal information to different degrees during memory retrieval they tested memory of the magic shrinking machine after 24 hours.
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What 4 measures were used to test children in Simcock and Hayne's study?
Verbal recall using questions. Photo identification. Behavioural re-enactment. MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory to test verbal abilities
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What did Simcock and Hayne (2003) find?
4 year olds better recall of shriking machine than 2 year olds in all domain. But 2 year olds did have some memory of the event.
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Specifically what did Simcock and Hayne (2003) find out about those with higher vocabs?
Performed better on all aspects of recall suggesting represenational nature of memory changes with age. Earlier memories emcoded non-verbally and only rely on verbal encoding later on
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What did Simcock and Hayne conclude from their study?
Evidence in favour of Mmory Format Change hypothesis for childhood amnesia. Harder for younger children to verbally recall events because don't rely on verbal encoding strategies.
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Card 2


At what age do children begin pretend play?


18 months

Card 3


Children begin sociodramatic play at 2.5 years, when do they typically have imaginary friends?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What can imaginary companions be used for?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Nativists say we are born with a biology module to organise observations into knowledge of living things since we pick up this kind of information v. rapidly. What do empiricists say?


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