Divisions in Civil Rights Movement

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  • Created by: emma why
  • Created on: 28-03-14 14:52
What did Johnson expect to happen after the passing of the 1965 Voting Rights Act?
For racial tension to ease
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What happened less than a week after the 1965 Voting Rights Act was passed?
Watts Riots began
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How long did the Watts Riots last and how many people died?
Six days and 34 people
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What does the Watts Riots show Johnson's legislation failed to do?
Stamp out police racism or poverty in urban ghettos
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By 1965 what was starting to increase between civil rights groups?
Tensions
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When was the shooting of James Meredith?
1966
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When did James Farmer resign as leader of CORE?
1966
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When did SNCC embrace self defence and expel white members?
1966
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What happened in 1966 regarding NAACP and NUL negotiotions with SCLC and SNCC?
NAACP and NUL walked out
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What does NUL stand for?
National Urban League
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In 1968 SNCC embraced the use of what?
'revolutionary violence'
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When did CORE expel white members?
1968
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What did tensions originate over?
Disagreements over methods and goals as well as rivalry and personality clashes between leaders
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Why did leaders clash?
Over their individual need for public recognition and media attention
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Which groups were presented by the media in the 1960s as moderate due to commitments to work through courts and willingness to work with whites?
NAACP and NUL
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From the mid-1960s which groups were seen as radical?
SNCC and CORE
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From the mid-1960s why were SNCC and CORE seen as radicals?
As they advocated self-defence
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Why were Martin Luther King and SCLC criticised by moderates?
For ebing too radical
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Why were Martin Luther King and SCLC criticised by radicals?
For being too moderate
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Did labels such as 'moderate' or 'radical' remain fixed - and if not, why?
No as aims and methods of groups changed over time
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What happened to SNCC, CORE and SCLC during the 1960s?
Became more radical
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What were the sources of tension between civil rights groups?
Use of violence, extent to which black and white should collaborate, how far de jure change could bring de facto change, extent to which black people should seek integration
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What was King's commitment to peaceful protest based on?
Strong belief in Christianity, to 'turn the other cheek''
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What method did King and the SCLC prove the effectiveness of in the late 1950s and early 1960s?
Peaceful direct action
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From what did SNCC and CORE commitment to non-violence originate?
Pragmatism, used these methods as they owrked
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Did SNCC and CORE believe non-violence could be compatible with self-defence?
yes
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What is an example of how SNCC and CORE believed non-violence was compatible with self-defence?
SNCC activists in South prepared to accept protection from black farmers armed with guns
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Why did the radical Malcolm X disagree with the principle of non-violent?
Believed should use any means necessary to fight white oppression
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What prompted SNCC to emphasise its commitment to self-defence in 1966?
Shooting of James Meredith
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In 1962 what was Meredith the first black student to do?
Be admitted to the University of Mississippi
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When was James Meredith shot?
While on his March Against Fear
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What was the intention of the March Against Fear through Mississippi?
To try and encourage voter registration
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What did Stokely Carmichael argue that the shooting of James Meredith showed?
Need for black people to use violence to defend themselves
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In what way did SNCC become more radical in 1968?
Stokely Carmichael proposed using revolutionary violence against the SUS government
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What prompted the resignation of CORE's leader James Farmer in 1966?
Movement away from non-violence in the late 1960s
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Which groups welcomed white people, believing that co-operation led to strength?
NAACP and SCLC
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Radicals saw danger in collaboration, what did they argue that black people should do instead?
Liberate themselves
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What is another reason why some radicals rejected bi-racial working?
Said white people could not understand the experience of black people or problems faced
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When did CORE decide that blacks must form the majority?
1966
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Which groups fought for legal change, being committed to working with the American legal system?
NAACP, NUL and SCLC
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What did the absence of de jure racism in the north mean for northern blacks?
Gained little from legal victories
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What issues did SNCC and CORE focus on?
The economic and political issues faced by black citizens in northern ghettos who had not gained from legal victories
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What is an example showing that racial integration was at the heart of NAACP campaigns?
Brown case
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What shows that initially SNCC and CORE fought for integration?
Greensboro sit-ins and Freedom Rides
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happened less than a week after the 1965 Voting Rights Act was passed?

Back

Watts Riots began

Card 3

Front

How long did the Watts Riots last and how many people died?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the Watts Riots show Johnson's legislation failed to do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

By 1965 what was starting to increase between civil rights groups?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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