Divisions and MLK Last Campaigns

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  • Created by: emma why
  • Created on: 28-03-14 16:41
What did Stokeley Carmichael stress in the mid 1960s?
Importance of the lack of control of public services above integrating.
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What organisation was Stokeley Carmichael leader of?
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What did Stokeley Carmichael say about traditional integrationalist campaigns such as the Brown case?
Only changed education for a handful of black students; argued that instead black people should campaign for control over local schools to ensure high standard of education?
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What did the Nation of Islam's Malcolm X argue during the 1950s?
That white people would never stop trying to enslave black people and black freedom was only possible in an all-black soceity.
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Who was the focus of a great deal of criticism for apparently being a glory seeker controlled by the white government?
Martin Luther King
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Why were SNCC and CORE critical of King?
Accused him of treating them as junior members of the civil rights movement
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What did King suggest that SNCC should become?
The 'student wing' of the SCLC but SNCC was keen to remain independent
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What was CORE's criticism of King based on?
Fact felt King was not supportive of their campaign - e.g. criticising him for not playing a larger role in the 1961 Freedom Rides
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Which campaign did CORE's James Farmer use to gain attention?
Freedom Rides
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Which campaign did SNCC use to gain media attention?
Freedom Summer
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Why was media attention so vital?
Vital to gaining funds and new membeers
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Which groups were concerned that King worked too closely with Presidents Kennedy and Johnson?
SNCC and CORE activists
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Why did radicals object to working with government?
Felt that they had failed to protect protesters during campaigns.
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When did personal relationships between civil rights movement leaders reach an all time low?
In 1966 when negotiations between SNCC, NAACP, SCLC, CORE and NUL over protest match after Shooting of James Meredith
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Why did, in 1966, Carmichael (SNCC) say he would no longer work with NAACP and NUL?
Due to their conservatism and willingness to work with white leaders and politicians
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Why did the leaders of NAACP and NUL walk out of talks over protest march after shooting of James Meredith?
Carmichael had verbally abused them
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What was a contentious issue for black activists?
Vietnam War
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Why did the leaders of the NAACP support Vietnam War?
Believed criticism of it would drive a wedge between campaigners and government
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Why were radicals in SNCC highly critical of Vietnam War?
Saw it as racial war between the Asian people of Vietnam and white American government
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Initially King refused to criticise Vietnam but over time felt a moraal obligation to speak out - violated commitment to peace. Who did his public rejection of war cause tensions with?
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Howdid Whitney Young of the NUL claim it was possible for experienced campaigners to use divisions to their advantage?
Every time Malcolm X or Carmichael criticised NUL it became easier for the group to work with white politicians and business leaders - criticism persuaded respectable organisation nad implied moderte
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What scared the white establishment?
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What kind of relationship did Young of the NUL claim to have with Malcolm X?
A good relationship, whenever the NUL had difficult negotiations asked Malcolm X to telephone employers
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Why did Whitney Young claim that he would ask Malcolm X to telephone employers when there was a difficult negotiation?
Scared them into talking to the NUL
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How did tensions have a negative impact on the fight for freedom?
Damaged King's reputation and showed he was not the spokesman for every black citizen
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What is an example showing that King did not speak for every black citizen?
Watt Riots when crowds ignored his pleas for an end to the violence
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Following 1966 SNCC and CORE were no longer prepared to work with which groups, hampering efforts of national campaigns?
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How did Martin Luther King describe the nearing end of racism?
"an obdurate, centuries old, and traditional conflict is now nearing its solution."
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When was the Moynihan Report published?
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When was the Chicago Freedom Movement?
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When was the Memphis Workers' Strike?
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When was Martin Luther King assassinated?
4 April 1968
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By 1965 what did many white Americans feel about the civil rights movement?
Had become obsolete as segregation outlawed and voting rights had been guaranteed
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What did King know that true racial equality needed, rather than just de jure change?
Needed to consider the social and economic problems of the northern states
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What were the most difficult campaigns of Martin Luther King's career?
Northern campaign
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Although the 1964 Civil Rights Act outlawed the segregation of the south, how did it help the north?
Did little to address the problems there as discrimination was in form of social and economic
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What did the Moynihan Report investigate?
Extent of economic and social discrimination against black Americans
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What inspired Martin Luther King to focus on social and economic discrimination?
The Moynihan Report
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What was the long title of the Moyihan Report?
The ***** Family: The Case for National Action
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What was the Moynihan Report?
Study of the economic position of black Americans by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, drawing focus to high levels of crime within black community and poor living conditions
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What did Moynihan say as consequences of ghettoisation of the North?
De facto segregation of education and housing
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Who commissioned the Moynihan Report?
President Johnson, hoped to use it to promote economic equality
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How did Johnson's aims in the Moyinhan Report fail?
Black leaders were horrified as the report blamed black people for economic problems and suggested that they were incapable of helping themselves
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Why was the Moynihan Report significant?
Created tension between well meaning liberals such as President Johnson and black radicals, used by some whites to argue against government help for black people
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When was Chicago?
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In the south blacks had achieved greater social and political equality. King hoped this would help blacks in north where issue socio-economic equality - did it?
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What had to be done in Chicago?
Do something to stop increasing violence and radicalism among blacks
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What did the SCLC say about Chicago?
" if Northern problems can be solved there, they can be solved anywhere"
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Of Chicago's 3 million inhabitants, what number were black?
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Where were black people in Chicago concentrated?
South side and the ghettos of the West Side
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What aws the social situation of Chicago?
Chronic unemployment, poor job opportunities, housing and education issues
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How overcrowded were Chicago's black schools?
Students had to attend in half day shifts
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Why were other Northern cities out of bounds to King?
Adam Clayton Powell told him to stay out of NYC, local NAACP leader told him to stay out of Philadelphia
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Chicago activists had told SCLC not to take over but what actually happened?
They did, but pretty amiably
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What was sporadic protest in Chicago generally inspired by?
Southern sit-ins
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In Chicago, when had there been a wade-in to protest segregation of South Side beach?
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In October 1963 what proportion of the 500,000 black students boycotted segregated schools in Chicago?
Over half
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Did the boycott of segregated schools by black students in October 1963 achieve anything?
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Did Chicago's influential religious community support civil rights?
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What did King think about the leadership of civil rights in the North?
Thought it was poor
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Whose vote did the Chicago Mayor Richard Daley rely on?
Black voters
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Mayor Daley of Chicago was not a racist. If he could be won over, what was the campaign likely to be?
A success
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What was a flaw of King's plans for Chicago?
From winter 1965-6 talked with his lieutenant Andrew Young on wht SCLC could do in Chicago, Young talked vaguely of mobillising Chicago blacks
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In late 1966 what did SCLC decide to focus on in Chicago?
Discrimination in house sales that stopped blacks from moving out of ghetto slums
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What was unfair about what happened when King moved to Chicago?
Flat improved, was not he same as would actually be lived in - division of black movement, SCLC appear unfair
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Did King's family enjoy life in Chicago?
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What was King hit with during a Chicago march?
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What was the impact of riots in Chicago?
Led to a negative image of blacks in the north
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When did SCLC rent out a West Side ghetto apartment for King's use?
January 1966
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What happened when landlord found out King was his new tenant?
Repair men moved in to make habitable
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What did people in Chicago joke was the easiest way for King to improve the ghettos?
Move from building to building
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After King led reporters around the rat-infested, unheated ghetto dwellings what did he do?
Seized a slum building and began repairing it
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What did King tell the press regarding the seizure of the slum building?
Had collected tenant's rent to finance this, claiming morals are more important than law
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What caused the division between Chicago activists and SCLC members?
No clearly defined issue
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How many came to a rally in Chicago in July 1966?
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How many people had been expected to turn up to the Chicago rally in July 1966?
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What was the result of meetings between King and Mayor Daley after the march?
King said Daley not doing enough and he said he was doing his best
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Why was King's personal life close to collapse in Chicago?
As they experienced ghetto life, no opportunities for children to leave airless flat to play
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When did police in Chicago turn off the fire hydrant black youths had been using to cool of?
When temperature almost 40C
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What happened after fire hydrants turned off in Chicago?
Some arrested and angry blacks through streets. King persuaded police to release youngsters and encouraged ministers to join his walk through streets to calm people.
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What happened when King encouraged ministers to join walk through streets to calm people?
The crowds walked away from him!
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What did King manage to achieve regarding fire hydrants?
Managed to persuade Mayor Daley to make fire hudrants and pools available
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Daley implicated SCLC in the riots. How much had the riots caused in damage?
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What did Chicago whites fear that having black neighbours would do?
Lower property values
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When 500 black marchers entered the white working class Chicago neighbourhood of Cicerio to publicise they could not live there, what happened?
Met with rocks and bottles
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What did many influential whites say King should do, blaming him for events in Chicago?
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Who did King blame for Chicago?
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What did King warn discriminatory house pirces would lead to?
"***** cities ringed with white suburbs"
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Chicago Tribune denounced King as an agitator and asked how demonstrations that turned violent could be justified. How did he respond?
Said they might stop greater violence and that the issue was not his march but the problems leading to it
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When did King leave Chicago?
August 1966
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Who did King leave in charge of Operation Breadbasket in Chicago?
SCLC's Jesse Jackson
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What was Operation Breadbasket?
Use of economic boycotts to increase black employment
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Why did the police do little to protect blacks?
Shocked at being called "****** lovers"
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What led the police to become involved and marches in Chicago become more successful?
When a rock hit King making national news
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After King was hit by a rock, how many policemen protected 700 black marchers?
800 policemen
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What was distracting SCLC from Chicago?
Meredith March
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How much money did SCLC obtain to improve federal housing in Chicago?
$4mn federal grant
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What was the legacy of Chicago?
Community action
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Why did locals come to hate SCLC and King?
Felt SCLC had sold out
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Why was SCLC not very successful in Chicago?
Had been ill prepared- e.g. in winter did not have appropriate clothing
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What was an issue with Chicago's 700,000 black population?
Too large to mobilise, unlike Selma
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Did the NAACp and local black churches join King's Chicago Freedom Movement?
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Were radical black muslims (Nation of Islam) helpful in Chicago?
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Why were conservative blacks unhelpful in Chicago?
Did not agree with SCLC attempts to recruit young gang members
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What was a religion popular among ghetto blacks?
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Why was the fact that SCLC was Christian important?
Black Muslims were not interested in life after death and believed need to fix own life while SCLC held idea that God would look after you
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Who had represented Chicago since WWII?
Black Congressman William Dawson
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Why did William Dawson, black congressman, dislike mass action?
Caused trouble
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Why was there resentment of King's criticism of a slum land lord?
Most slum land owned by blacks
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Why did Johnson turn against King?
As King criticised Vietnam war
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When US troops went to Vietnam in 1965, a disproportionate number were what race?
Blacks who couldn't get other jobs easily
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In 1966 what did King criticise?
The death of so many blacks in Vietnam
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Was there a lot of national press coverage of the Chicago Freedom Movement?
No, limited coverage
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What was a difference between the black marchers in Selma and marchers in Chicago?
In Chicago marched into white neighbourhood - less popular than attempts to vote
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What happened when CORE defied King by leading march into white Cicero?
Divisions evident and white Americans frightened by riots and violent protests
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What did SCLC's Jesse Jackson, who was left in charge of Operation Breadbasket, think of Chicago?
Success as it woke up North America
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What did Coretta King say about Chicago?
The violence was counter productive
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What in Chicago can be seen as a success?
Operation Breadbasket - the use of economic boycotts
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When was the Meredith March?
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What was Meredith's aim?
After Voting Rights Act tried to attract attention to encourage black voters in his state
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What was James Meredith inadvertently responsible for?
First major non-violent protest since Selma
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Who was James Meredith?
Had been University of Missippi's first black student
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What was the walk that James Meredith had planned to encourage voting?
Walk from Memphis to state capital Jackson
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What happened that prevented James Meredith from completing his walk?
Shot on second day
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What did black organisations say that they would do for Meredith?
Continue his walk
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What did King do regarding the Meredith March?
Came from Chicago with 20 others
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By the third day of the walk, how many marchers were there?
400 including new SNCC leader Stokely Carmichael
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What had Stokely Carmichael been involved in in Mississippi?
SNCC's voter registration campaign
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What happened to Carmichael on the Meredith March?
He was arrested while white bystanders stood waving Confederate flags
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What was the song that SNCC sung on the Meredith March?
"Oh what fun it is to blast a (white) trooper man away"
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What did Carmichael urge when he was released?
Burning of courthouses and demanded 'Black Power'
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How did crowds react to Carmichael's shouts for Black Power?
Joined in
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What did King and SCLC encourage instead of black power?
"freedom now"
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Which group did King reluctantly agree could act providing security during Meredith March?
Black paramilitary group Deacons for Defense
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King was tired of violence and urged against retaliations to tear gas. How did Johnson react to his plea to send in federal troops?
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What is an example of the power of the Meredith March?
A 106 year old man who had been alive at the time of the Civil War registered on television to vote
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How did Meredith feel about the march and what did he do?
Felt excluded and began his own march
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Why did some SCLC leaders join Meredith on his personal march?
To disguise the split
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How many main marchers arrived at Jackson with rival chants of 'black power' and 'freedom now'?
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What did NAACP and NUL want a focus on?
New civil rights bill
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What did Carmichael think of the new civil rights bill?
Criticized it
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While SNCC rejected whites, what did King do?
Welcome them
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When did SNCC and CORE become increasingly militant?
Following lack of federal protection for voter registration projects in Freedom Summer of 1964
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Why did King feel he could no longer co-operate with SNCC?
As Carmichael had used the march for black power
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After the Meredith March why was the civil rights movement closer to a more public split?
NAACP no longer wanted to co-operate with SCLC or SNCC
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King knew that unless what happened, people would start to become more violent?
Government helped him achieve victories
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Although King had frequently been led, he had been used to being at front of movements. What did the Meredith March show regarding the future?
Leadership might pass to hands of extremists such as Carmichael who rejected passive resistance
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With Carmichael as new leader of SNCC, what were they moving towards?
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What was the impact of conflicts on white opinion?
Turned them against civil rights movement
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What was the name of King's book that was published in 1967?
Where do we go from here?
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Who marginalised King after Chicago and Meredith March, leaving him unsure of what to do?
Black extremists who called for separatism and said should do anything necessary
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What caused the collapse of the civil rights movement?
Black extremists, white backlash and distraction of white liberals by Vietnam War
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What did King highlight in Where do We Go From Here?
Giving vote had not cost money but improving economic situation would be expensive
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What did King urge in his 1967 book?
Affirmative action ('positive discrimination)
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Who did King urge blacks to broaden movement in war against poverty?
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What was surprising about the people who opposed King's Poor People's Campaign?
They included his friends and colleagues
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After Meredith March was King becoming closer to the civil rights movement?
No, was moving away from it
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In March 1968 King was asked to visit Memphis, Tennessee to talk to sanitation workers. What was surprising about the march he joined?
The radical minority had become violent
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What highlights King's growing apathy towards violent protest as he realised it could not be stopped?
"maybe we just have to admit that the day of violence is here, and maybe we have to just give up."W
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When was the Poor People's Campaign?
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What does the Poor People's Campaign, in response to Chicago, show?
Radicalisation of method
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What was the intention of the Poor People's Campaign
Coalition t tackle socioeconomic problems
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Who did King plan to be in his coalition for the Poor People's Campaign?
Blacks, Puerto Ricans, Mexican, American Indians and poor white people
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What was the Poor People's Campaign to campaign for?
Better standards and end to ghettos
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What was the strategies intended to be for Poor People's Campaign?
Nationwide civil disobedience, occupying government buildings, boycotting businesses and march on Washington
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What was the demand of campaigners for the Poor People's Campaign?
Federal budget of $30 billion annually to combat poverty, government commitment to employment and initiatives to build 500,000 houses a year
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What proved to King that more radical demands and methods were needed?
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Did Johnson support King's Poor People's Campaign?
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What had created a split between civil rights activists and liberal politicans, as well as diverting resources away from social projects?
Vietnam War
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In March 1968, what was the state of progress by SCLC organisers for Poor People's Campaign
Support of many labour unions and religious groups gained, had begun raising money needed for campaign
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What drew King's attention away from the Poor People's Campaign?
Memphis Workers' Strike
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What was the Memphis Workers' Strike of 1968?
City authorities refused to recognise the workers' union and used tear gas to break up their marches
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To some extent, what did the Memphis Workers' Strike have a resemblance to?
The kind of campaign King wanted to organise
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What was the demographic of the Sanitation Workers' Union and what did they hope for?
Mainly black with some poor whites, goals economic - using non-violence
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How long did the Sanitation Workers' Union's march last and what happened?
PEACEFUL march lasted less than an hour with marchers looting shops and police using tear gas
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King agreed to lend support to Memphis Workers' Strike. Did it succeed in its aims?
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What did the newspapers report on the Memphis Workers' Strike?
Some said that King had led a violent march while others called him a coward for leaving once march turned violent
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What was the PPC?
Poor People's Campaign
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What did the headlines of the Memphis Workers' Strike jeopardise?
THe PPC as his reputation was crucial
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How did King, Jesse Jackson and other SCLC members try to turn defeat into victory in Memphis?
Second march
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What prevented a second march in Memphis?
King's assassination
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How was King assassinated?
Shot while standing on balcony of hotel room
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How old was King when he died?
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When was King shot?
4th April 1968
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What did King say regarding the future of black Americans?
"I've seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But... we, as a people, will get to the Promised Land."
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What did King's death become symbolic of?
Death of civil rights movement as it had been
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What did Johnson call for on King's death?
National day of mourning
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What happened after King's death?
Memphis authorities gave in to demands of Memphis Sanitation Workers
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In how many places was there racial violence after King's assassination?
29 states and 130 cities
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What does Stokely Carmichael of SNCC say about violence on King's death?
"When white America killed Dr King, she declared war on us."
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Card 2


What organisation was Stokeley Carmichael leader of?



Card 3


What did Stokeley Carmichael say about traditional integrationalist campaigns such as the Brown case?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What did the Nation of Islam's Malcolm X argue during the 1950s?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Who was the focus of a great deal of criticism for apparently being a glory seeker controlled by the white government?


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