Dissolved Substances

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Define : Diffusion
The transportation of substances from a low concentration to a high concentration through the cell membrane
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Define : Active Transport
The transportation of substances from a high concentration to a low concentration through a cell membrane that requires energy from respiration and protien carries in cell membrane
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Define : Osmosis
The movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane to a more concentrated solution
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What part does the partially permiable membrane take in osmosis?
It allows small, soluable solutions (water) to pass through it freely and prevents larger molecules from doing so
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What will happen if a cell is in a more dilute solution than water?
The molecules will move into the cell
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What happens (during osmosis) to a plant cell when the water moves INTO it?
The water will enter until the cell contents are pressed against the strong cell wall ( it becomes turgid)
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What happens (during osmosis) to an animal cell when the water moves INTO it?
The cell will swell up until it bursts because there is no cell wall
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What will happen to a cell if it is in contact with a more concentrated solution than water?
The water molecules will move out of the cell
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What happens (during osmosis) to a plant cell when the water moves OUT OF it?
The plant cell looses water and the cell goes limp
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What happens (during osmosis) to an animal cell when the water moves OUT OF it?
The cell contents shrink and it looses its normal shape
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Complete this sentence - All living organisms rely on.....
Exchanges with the environment to survive
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Complete this sentence - Diffusion only works if....
The distance in which is has to diffuse is small and it has a large surface area in comparison to its volume
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What did larger organisms that could perform diffusion have to do?
Evolved and make specialised organ systems
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What is lost during exercise? and how?
Water and mineral ions through sweating and glucose through repsiration
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What happens if the body if the mineral ion content of the body gets too low?
It can cause to much water to move in and our of cell therefore damaging them
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What do sports drinks contain?
Water, sugar and mineral ions
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What is respiration?
Chemical reaction that happens inside living cells to release energy, using oxygen and glucose in the blood
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What is gas exchange?
The process of swapping the gas that is needed (oxygen) for the waste gas (carbon dioxide)
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Where does the exchange of gases occur?
In the alveoli
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Define : Ventiliation
The mechanical process sued by humans and some other animals, to help with gas exchange (breathing)
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Where are the lungs situated?
The lungs are situated in the chest/thorax protected by the ribcage and separated from the lower past of the body by the diaphragm
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What is the diaphragm?
A sheer of muscular tissue below the lungs which is dome shaped when it is relaxed but flattens when it contracts
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How is the ribcage moved?
By muscles between the ribs called the intercostal muscles
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Complete this sentence: The combined movements of the ribcage and the diaphragm cause.....
The volume of the thorax to first increase and then decrease. This causes pressure change and results in air rushing in and then being forced out
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Explain the process of breathing in
The rib muscles contract to move the ribs unpwards and outwards. The diaphragm contracts and move downwards
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Explain the process of breathing out
The rib muscles relax to lower the ribs downwards and inwards. The diaphragm relaxes and moves upwards
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What are the two types of artifical breathing aids?
Negative pressure ventilators (iron lung) and Positive pressure ventilators
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How do NEGATIVE pressure ventilators work?
A vaccum pump removes all the air causing ribcage to expand, pressure inside the lungs fall so air moves in, vaccum is relased forcing air out agian
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How do POSITIVE pressure ventiliators work?
Force air into patients lungs through a plastic o=r metal tube into windpipe
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Complete this sentence : Roots aborb water.....
From the soil through osmosis
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Complete this sentence : Roots dissolve mineral ions....
From the soil by active transport
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How do plants maximize absorption?
Roots have specialised cells called root hair cells that are found in the tips of the root
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What adaptations to root hair cells have?
A 'tube-like' structure that provides larger surface area for water and mineral ions to be exchanged and it contains lots of mitochondria which release energy to provide for active transport
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How are leaves adapted to maximising absorbtion of carbon dioxide and sunlight?
Flattened shape - Larger surface area, Thin - Short diffusion distance
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define : Active Transport

Back

The transportation of substances from a high concentration to a low concentration through a cell membrane that requires energy from respiration and protien carries in cell membrane

Card 3

Front

Define : Osmosis

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What part does the partially permiable membrane take in osmosis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What will happen if a cell is in a more dilute solution than water?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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