Diseases and immunity

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What causes malaria?
The parasite plasmodium
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How is malaria transported and affect its host?
It is transported through mosquito's - when they feed on the host they inject saliva which contains the plasmodium parasite - this firstly enters the liver where it matures and multiplies, released into blood where it affects the RBC - bursting
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What is HIV?
human immuno deficiency virus
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How is HIV transported?
It is a sexually transmitted disease or mother to baby (placenta/breast milk) - the receptor cells on the HIV virus are complementary to WBC - it binds to the target receptor cells + enters - copies it's RNA into DNA and injects to host = replicates
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Is HIV always active?
No - it can lay dormant for many years inside host
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What is TB?
Tuberculosis - caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis
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How is it transmitted?
Through inhalation of droplets in the air from person to person and is worse in over-crowded populations
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What are the symptoms?
Coughing blood, chest pains, shortness of breath, fever and weight loss
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What are primary defences?
The skin (anti microbrial and low pH), acid environments (******, stomach), cilliated epithelium and globlet cells in the respiraitory system, lysosomes
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What does cilliated epithelium do?
It rhythmically wafts up mucus secreted by the globlet cells, the mucus is sticky and contains digestive enzymes = traps pathogens and wafts them up to get swallowed by the acidic stomach
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What are WBC ?
Phagocytes and lymphocytes that originate in the bone marrow
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How do phagocytes work?
They get released directly into the blood - fully mature - they are the first stem in the immune response when they come across a foreign antibody they engulf, creae a phagocytic vacuole that fuses + lysosomes&digest the pathogen, antigen presenting
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What is a macrophage?
A phagocytic white blood cell
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What is the structure of a T lymphocyte and what does it differentiate into?
They have receptor cells on their plasma membrane that bind to the antigens on phagocytes (if complementary - colonal expansion) and differentiates into T killer, T helper, and memory cells (colonal expansion)
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What is the structure of a B lymphocyte and what does it differentiate into?
It has antibodies on it's plasma membrane that are all different and when it's complementary it binds (colonal selection) it then differentiates into plasma cells and memory cells
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What is the structure of an antibody?
Two polypeptide chains - It has a constant and variable region, a heavy and light chain, a variable region, and disulphide bridges
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How do antibodies prevent illness?
Agglutination - clumping pathogens together= many can be englufed at once and too large to pass through membrane, producing antitoxins that bind with the toxins - and binding to antibodies on antigens to prevent them binding with bodies cells
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Where are lymphocytes made?
In the bone marrow but mature in the lymph nodes before being secreted (t cells in thymus gland)
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What is ring vaccination?
Vaccinating all those who have been in immediate contact with said person with disease to prevent further contamination
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What is herd vaccination?
Vaccinating a community so it is difficult to maintain an infection stream - cannot travel from host to host
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Why is it hard to provide medication for influenza?
Small adaptations mean the new virus is now unrecognisable by the body and thus a new strain is formed
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What is cardiovascular disease?
Diseases which affect the heart and circulatory system
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What are examples of cardiovascular diseases?
Artheroscelrosis, CHD, stroke, arteriosclerosis
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What's he difference between artherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis
Arteriosclerosis is the stiffening or hardening of the artery walls due to the deposits of minerals e.g. calcium. Atherosclerosis is the narrowing of the artery because of plaque build-up.
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What is the main cause of cardiovascular disease?
Artherosclerosis - fatty deposits start in adolescence and increasingly restrict blood flow causing desabling diseases and ultimately death
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What are the first symptoms of a cardiovascular disease?
Hypertension = first sign by narrowing of lumen restricting blood flow and heart pumps against incr fricton, makes walls less elastic and cannot diolate and recoil as easy
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What are more symptoms of cardiovascular disease?
Difficulty to exercise - out of breath after small amount of exercise extra increase in heart output due to friction and doesn't recieve enough O2 and has to work 2x as hard
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What is angina?
Chest pains due to the narrowing of arteries during exercise - subsides quickly this is also a symptom of coronary disease
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What may cardiovascular disease lead to?
A myocardial infarction
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What factors increase the risk of getting cardiovascular disease?
Age, sex, ****, obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol, diet, inactivity, salt intake, absence of health fats and minerals, genetics, diabetes, stress
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Card 2

Front

How is malaria transported and affect its host?

Back

It is transported through mosquito's - when they feed on the host they inject saliva which contains the plasmodium parasite - this firstly enters the liver where it matures and multiplies, released into blood where it affects the RBC - bursting

Card 3

Front

What is HIV?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How is HIV transported?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Is HIV always active?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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