Disease and immunity (Unit 1)

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  • Created by: steph
  • Created on: 21-12-13 00:55
What are the two forms of the non-specific defence mechanism?
Barrier of entry into the body + phagocytosis
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What are the two forms of specific defence mechanisms?
T cells (cellular response) + B cells (humoral response)
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What makes T-cells and B-cells a specific defence mechanism?
The receptors on each T-cell + B-cell respond to a single antigen
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What are the causes of non-infectious disease?
Body malfunctioning e.g. Cancer, heart disease, genetic disorders
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List the 3 types of pathogens
Fungi, bacteria + viruses
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Definition of a pathogen
A disease causing microorganism
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How can pathogens enter into the body?
Via the gas-exchange system, the skin + the digestive system
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How can pathogens cause disease?
By toxic production or by cell damage
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List the different types of cell damage
Rupturing them to release nutrients inside them, breaking down nutrients inside the cell for their own use (which starves + eventually kills the cell) + replicating inside the cell (bursting them when they're released)
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Definition of an antigen
A protein on the suface of a cell, which stimulates an immune response
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What is an attenuated microorganism?
A dead microorganism
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Give three examples of barriers to pathogen entry
Skin, hydrochloric acid in the stomach + mucus in the respiratory system
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What is the function of lysosomes?
Lysosomes enzymes break down the pathogen by hydrolysis
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What happens to the products of the hydrolysis of a pathogen?
They are absorbed into the cytoplasm
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Where in the body are phagocytosis found?
In the blood
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What effect does histamine have on blood vessels?
Causes dilation of the blood vessels (speeding up the delivery of phagocytes to the site of an infection)
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What is pus?
Dead pathogens + phagocytes
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How do T cells replicate themselves?
By mitosis
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Give four functions of T cells
1) Stimulate B cells to divide 2) Stimulates phagocytosis by phagocytes 3) Kills infected cells 4) Produces T memory cells
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How do T-cells kills infected body cells?
They produce a protein that makes holes in the cell surface membrane, the cell becomes freely permable resulting in its death
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What kind of pathogen are T-cells particularly effective of killing, and why?
Viruses - due to them living inside cells, which prevents them from multiplying
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Give two ways in which the secondary immune response is more effective than the primary immune response
High quantity of antibodies in the blood + longer lasting immunity
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What are monoclonal antibodies used for?
1) Seperation of a chemical from a mixture 2) Immunoassay (calculating the amount of a substance in a mixture) 3) Cancer treatment (attach only to cancer cells) 4) Transplant surgery ('knock out' specific T-cells, which reject the new cells)
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What is the success of a vaccination programme dependent upon?
1) Vaccine must be economically available (high enough quantity available) 2) Few side effects 3) A means of producing, storing + transporting the vaccine 4) Able to administer the vaccine at the right time 5) Can vaccinate the majority:herd immunity
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Why are diseases not eliminated by vaccination?
1) Many varieties of disease (impossible to develop a vaccine effective against all) 2) Individuals may have religious or ethical objections to vaccination 3) Pathogen mutates frequently: antigenic variability 4) Pathogens may hide from immune system
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Give two ways in which passive immunity differs from active immunity
It is introduced into the body from an external source + it is short lived immunity
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Card 2

Front

What are the two forms of specific defence mechanisms?

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T cells (cellular response) + B cells (humoral response)

Card 3

Front

What makes T-cells and B-cells a specific defence mechanism?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the causes of non-infectious disease?

Back

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Card 5

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List the 3 types of pathogens

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