disease

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what is a pathogen?
a microorganism that causes infectious disease.
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what must is do to be considered a pathogen?
-gain entry to the host. -colonise the tissues of the host. -resist the defences of the host. -cause damage to the host tissues.
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when does it become a disease?
when there are recognisable symptoms.
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describe the appearance of a bacterium.
-very small. -either: spherical/rod-shaped/corkscrew. -rigid murein cell wall. 0they group themselves in chains or pairs.
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what does bacteria cause?
-salmonella. -TB. -diptheria. -tetanus. -whooping cough.
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describe the appearance of a virus.
-tiny. -reproduce in host cells. -central core containing DNA/RNA that is encased by a protein coat. -some have tails.
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what do viruses cause?
-flu. -mumps. -AIDs. -measles. -German measles.
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describe the appearance of a fungi.
-large. -multicellular hypha.
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what does fungi cause?
-thrush. -athletes foot. -ringworm.
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how do pathogens enter the body?
by penetrating the digestive system in food/water or the gas exchange system.
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what natural defences are there?
-enzymes that break down pathogens. -stomach acid which kills microorganisms. -a mucus layer covering the gas exchange system, making a sticky barrier which is difficult to penetrate.
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how do pathogens cause disease?
-by damaging host tissues if the sheer number of pathogens break down the membranes. -by producing toxins.
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what is a risk?
a measure of probability that damage to health will occur as a result of a given hazard.
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what is important when considering a risk?
a timescale.
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what are the risk factors for cancer?
-smoking. -obesity. -lack of physical activity. -UV light. -high-fat, low-fibre diet.
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Card 2

Front

what must is do to be considered a pathogen?

Back

-gain entry to the host. -colonise the tissues of the host. -resist the defences of the host. -cause damage to the host tissues.

Card 3

Front

when does it become a disease?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

describe the appearance of a bacterium.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what does bacteria cause?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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