Disease and Immunisation

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What are pathogens?
Microorganisms that enter the body and cause disease
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What are the two main types of pathogen?
Bacteria and viruses
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Which type of pathogen is a cell?
Bacteria
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How do bacteria make you feel ill?
They damage your cells and produce toxins
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How do viruses replicate?
They invade your cells and use them to produce many copies of themselves
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How do viruses make you feel ill?
This happens when cell damage occurs when the cells burst (releasing new viruses)
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What stops a lot of microorganisms from getting in your body?
Skin, as well as hairs and mucus in your respiratory tract
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What are platelets?
Small fragments of cells
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What do platelets do to stop microorganisms getting in your body?
They help blood clot quickly to seal wounds
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What are the three stages that happen when white blood cells detect a foreign microbe?
1. Consuming them 2. Producing antibodies 3. Producing antitoxins
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What do white blood cells do to foreign cells?
White blood cells engulf the foreign cell and digest it
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What do pathogens have on their surface?
Antigens
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What are antibodies made of?
Proteins
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What do vaccinations contain?
A dead or weakened version of the pathogen
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What is the first advantage of vaccination?
They have helped to control lots of infectious diseases that were once common (smallpox doesn't occur any more, and polio infections have fallen by 99%)
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What is the second advantage of vaccination?
Epidemics can be prevented if a large enough percentage of the population is vaccinated
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What is the first disadvantage of vaccination?
Vaccines don't always give you immunity (no guarantee)
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What is the second disadvantage of vaccination?
Some people have a bad reaction to a vaccine (although they are very rare)
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What do painkillers do?
They reduce the symptoms (e.g. pain) without tackling the underlying cause
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What do antibiotics do?
They kill or prevent the growth of the bacteria without killing body cells
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What do antibiotics not affect?
Viruses
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Why is it difficult to develop drugs that destroy viruses?
Viruses reproduce using body cells, so it is very hard to develop drugs that destroy just the virus without killing the body's cells
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What is antibiotic resistance caused by?
Bacteria mutate to become resistant. This resistant bacterium survives and reproduces to form lots of resistant bacteria
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What is a well-know example of a resistant strain?
MRSA
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How can doctors avoid resistant strains developing?
They can avoid over-prescribing
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How can you test the action of antibiotics or disinfectants?
By growing cultures of microorganisms
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What is the common culture medium that microorganisms are grown on?
Agar jelly
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What does agar jelly contain?
Carbohydrates, minerals, proteins and vitamins
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How is agar jelly used to test antibiotics?
Inoculating loops are used to transfer microorganisms to the agar, which then multiply. Paper disks are used to transfer different types of antibiotics and placed on the jelly. Resistant bacteria will grow, but non-resistant strains will die
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What is sterilised before use when using this method?
The Petri dish, culture medium and inoculating loops
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How are inoculating loops sterilised?
By passing them through a flame
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At what temperature should the cultures of microorganisms be kept at?
At school, it is about 25 degrees C. In industrial conditions, it is higher so that they grow much faster
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What did Ignaz Semmelweis discover?
That doctors were spreading diseases on their unwashed hands to pregnant women
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What was the solution to this problem?
Semmelweis told doctors entering his ward to wash their hands in an antiseptic solution
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What is the main problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria developing?
They could spread rapidly, and an epidemic would be caused as some drugs would no longer be effective
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What is an epidemic?
A big outbreak of disease
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What is a pandemic?
When a disease spreads all over the world
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the two main types of pathogen?

Back

Bacteria and viruses

Card 3

Front

Which type of pathogen is a cell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do bacteria make you feel ill?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do viruses replicate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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