Disease and immune system

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  • Created by: livmoss
  • Created on: 19-05-16 17:14
DISEASE & THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
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What pathogen causes TB? Which organism does it affect?
Bacteria. Animals, mainly humans & cows.
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What pathogen causes meningitis? Affects?
Bacteria. Humans.
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What pathogen causes ring rot? Affects?
Bacteria. Potatoes &tomatoes.
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What pathogen causes HIV? Affects?
Virus. Humans.
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What pathogen causes influenza? Affects?
Virus. Animals including humans.
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What pathogen causes tobacco mosaic virus? Affects?
Virus. Plants.
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What pathogen causes black sigatoka? Affects?
Fungus. Banana plants.
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What pathogen causes ringworm? Affects?
Fungus. Cows.
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What pathogen causes athlete's foot? Affects?
Fungus. Humans.
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What pathogen causes potato/tomato blight? Affects?
Protoctist. Potatoes & tomatoes.
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What pathogen causes malaria? Affects?
Protoctist. Animals including humans.
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Name 3 factors that affect disease transmission.
(1) Living conditions e.g. overcrowding (2) Social factors e.g healthcare & education (3) Climate e.g tropical countries ideal for mosquitoes so malaria common
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How does blood clotting prevent infection?
Protein fibres form barrier.
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How does inflammation prevent infection?
Fluid leaks into surrounding area, can isolate pathogen. Causes pain because more pressure on pain receptors so more sensitive.
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How do mucous membranes prevent infection?
Ciliated cells, can produce mucous, stick to pathogens and move up trachea.
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Name 3 physical defences of plants.
Waxy cuticle, cell walls, callouses.
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How does waxy cuticle prevent plant infection?
Physical barrier on leaf, also stopes build up of water reducing risk of infection.
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How does the polysaccharide, callose, prevent plant infection?
Deposited between cell plasmodesmata during pathogen invasion. Makes it harder for pathogens to enter.
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Name 3 chemical defences of plants.
(1) Saponins destroy cell membrane of pathogen. (2) Phytoalexins inhibit growth of pathogen. (3) Chemicals toxic to insects.
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What do antigen-presenting phagocytes activate?
T Lymphocytes.
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What's clonal selection of T cells?
Activation of T cells after antigens from APCs bind to complimentary receptors on specific T cell.
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What's clonal expansion?
Activated T/B lymphocyte divides to produce clones of itself.
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What do T killer cells do?
Attach and kill body cells that are infected with a virus.
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What do T helper cells do?
Release interleukins which stimulate T killer cells and B lymphocytes.
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What do T regulatory cells do?
Suppress the immune response to prevent the attack on body cells.
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Structure of T lymphocytes...
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Structure of B lymphocytes...
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Structure of antibodies...
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What is the clonal selection of B lymphocytes?
Chemical messengers from T helper cells bind to complimentary shaped antigens on B cell and activated them.
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What's the difference between T & B memory cells?
B cells remember the right antibody while T memory cells activate/divide into correct cells to kill pathogen.
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Active immunity is producing your own antibodies. Give a natural and artificial example.
Natural:after catching a disease e.g chicken pox. Artificial: Vaccination.
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Passive immunity is being given antibodies. Give a natural and artificial example.
Natural: Baby gets them through placenta. Artificial: antibodies from someone else e.g tetnus from blood samples.
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Give 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages of active immunity.
✓Long term protection ✓Memory cells produced ✗Requires exposure ✗Protection develops slowly.
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Give 2 advantages and 2 disadvantages of passive immunity.
✓Short-term protection ✓Memory cells not produced ✗No exposure required ✗Immediate protection.
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What is an autoimmune disease?
Immune system has difficulty recognising self-antigens so launches immune response on own tissues. Usually chronic & without cure.
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MRSA resistance.
Causes wound infections and has become resistant to meticillin and other antibiotics.
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Clostridium difficile resistance.
Infects digestive system of those who have been treated with antibiotics. Produces toxins causing diarrhoea, fever and cramps.
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What is meant if an antibody acts as an opsinin?
They attach to pathogen via specific binding site and attach to WBC. Makes phagocytosis easier.
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Card 2

Front

What pathogen causes TB? Which organism does it affect?

Back

Bacteria. Animals, mainly humans & cows.

Card 3

Front

What pathogen causes meningitis? Affects?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What pathogen causes ring rot? Affects?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What pathogen causes HIV? Affects?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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