Discuss factors affecting the accuracy of EWT (studies)

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Wells
2 types of errors in EWT; ESTIMATOR (NOT CONROL OF JUSTICE SYSTEM E.G. ATTENTION) & SYSTEM (UNDER CONTROL OF J SYSTEM E.G. QUESTIONING)
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Bartlett
SUPPORT FOR SCHEMA THEORY - MEMORY BUILT FROM FRAGMENTS OF MEMORY, OWN EXPERIENCES & BELIEFS (SCHEMAS) - CHANGE MEMS SO THEY MAKE MORE SENSE TO US
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Carmichael et al
2 groups of pps shown pictures with different descriptions - when recalling the description affected drawing produced - schema provided altered recall
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Bartlett (2)
Assumed that schemas affect retrieval - subsequent research has suggested that initial perception & storage also affected
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Allport & Postman
2 men (1 white, 1 black) arguing on train - pps asked about razor - remembered it being held by black man even though white man holding it
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Bartlett (3)
We tend to recall in stereotyped ways
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Tuckey & Brewer
Pps shown vids of bank robbery - recall features fitting stereotypes e.g. robbers are male & counter-stereotypes e.g. belief that all robbers have guns contradicted
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Loftus et. al
Support weapons effect - 2 versions of customer in restaurant (1 - gun, 2 - cheque book) - pps who saw gun focused on it & less likely to identify perpetrator
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Pickel
Unusualness of situ provides focus on weapon, not the weapon itself
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Bruce
Recognising familiar face, something people are generally good at, unfamiliar faces = completely different matter
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Baddeley & Paterson
50% accuracy (whig), 30% (whig & beard), 70% (no change)
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Rehnman & Herlitz
women better at remembering faces than men (social aspects) - 212 swedish m&f - 60 faces to remember - 60 new faces & say which ones had seen before - f sig better & own-sex bias. m also better at f faces
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Ellis et al
Photofit not v good way of forming representations of faces, hair style & outline of face more important with unfamiliar faces, internal e.g. eyes with familiar faces
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Loftus & Palmer
LQs can distort memories for events, verb used in Q can alter speed ests. and expected consequences
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Loftus & Zanni
EWT open to distortion - 'did you see the/a broken light?' - 'the' - 2 x more likely to say yes
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Yullie & Cutshall
Real-life events - more difficult to distort people's memories - supports view that Loftus lacked eco validity
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Card 2

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SUPPORT FOR SCHEMA THEORY - MEMORY BUILT FROM FRAGMENTS OF MEMORY, OWN EXPERIENCES & BELIEFS (SCHEMAS) - CHANGE MEMS SO THEY MAKE MORE SENSE TO US

Back

Bartlett

Card 3

Front

2 groups of pps shown pictures with different descriptions - when recalling the description affected drawing produced - schema provided altered recall

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Assumed that schemas affect retrieval - subsequent research has suggested that initial perception & storage also affected

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

2 men (1 white, 1 black) arguing on train - pps asked about razor - remembered it being held by black man even though white man holding it

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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