Discuss ethical issues in the use of non -human animals in research in psychology

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Why is it benefitical and ethically justifiable to use non-human animals in psychology?
this type of research is highly scientific
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Animal research can be what?
tightly controlled in labs
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How can it be carried out?
objectively
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:it is higher on reliability than research involving what?
humans with lower ethical cost
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For example, what did Singer suggest?
using animals in research is essential for the greater goos on society
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therefore what is it?
ethically acceptable
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however, what do opponents argue?
even if one accepted animal research was ethical it is pointless anyway
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why>
because what applies to animals does not necessarily apply to humans
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due to what?
their different levels of intelligence
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For example, what could one say?
Gardner's study of Washoe was ethically justifiable on the basis of human benefit
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was it?
no
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Alternatively what do researchers argue?
legal constraints ensure that animal suffering is kept to a minimum, so they are largely protected from harm
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What does the animal act and BPs ethical guidelines lay down?
strict constraints within which researchers now have to work
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What do researchs who use animals, such as Seyle have to justify?
his use of so many rats to ensure that suffering was kept to a minimum,
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What else would he have to explain?
why it could not be carried out using non animal methods such as scanning
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What is this further backed up by?
Home office who introduced the principle of the 3 Rs (replace, reduce and refine
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What does this encourage?
support of ethical considerations regarding animals in research
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However, even these laws are what?
observed
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the level of animal suffering involved in psychological research has to be?
considered
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What is the current number?
3000 per year in the UK
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what does Dunayer argue?
laws make it legal to imprison, enslave and kill animals rather than making it more ethical
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What do some psychologists believe?
that humans are superior to animals
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What does this mean?
it is ethical to use animals to potential applications, which will ultimately improve the quality of human lives
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For example?
Pavlov's classical conditioning research has led to cures for bed wetting and for alcoholism
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However, what is this called?
Specieism,
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What could it be argued?
animals should have the same rights as humans
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but what happens when we are researching them?
we deny their right to withdraw and consent
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What would be an absolutist position?
no use of an animal is ever justifiable (Regan)
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What did BAteson conclude?
when considering ethical issues and the use of non human pps one has to weigh up
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What?
quality of research, certainty of benefit to humans and degree of animal suffering involved
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What happens when 1 and 2 are high but 3 is low?
it is ethical and justifiable to carry out animal research
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What?
quality of research, certainty of benefit to humans and degree of animal suffering involved
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What happens when 1 and 2 are high but 3 is low?
it is ethical and justifiable to carry out animal research
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Card 2

Front

Animal research can be what?

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tightly controlled in labs

Card 3

Front

How can it be carried out?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

:it is higher on reliability than research involving what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

For example, what did Singer suggest?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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