Discovering, Topic 10: Evolution, Genetics and Behaviour

  • Created by: Chookie
  • Created on: 20-05-17 12:40
Why does evolution intrest psychologists?
Understanding possible origins and the adaptive functions of human behaviour. they want to understand the ultimate and proximal causes of behaviour
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What does the ultimate cause mean?
The real reason something occurred
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What does the proximal cause mean?
The event which is closest to or immediately responsible for causing some observers result
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Does evolution mean?
Change over time
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What does evolution mean in the context of biology?
The change in inherited characteristics from generation to generation
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What is the phenotype?
The set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
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What do people interested in?
The changes in the phenotype overtime
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What is the genotype?
The genetic Constitution of an individual organism
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What type of human existed 2-4 million years ago?
Homo habilis
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What type of human exist in 400,000 years later after the one which existed 2-4 million years ago?
Homo erectus
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What type of human existence 300,000 years ago?
Homo neanderthalensis
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What type of human exists today?
Homo sapiens
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What does the order of human evolution?
Homo habilis. Homo erectus, homo neanderthalensis, Homo sapiens
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What does bipedal mean
They use two legs for walking
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What's the homo habilis bipedal?
Yes
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Did the homo habilis use tools?
Yes
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Who was larger the homo habilis of the Homo erectus?
The Homo erectus
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He walked more upright the homo habilis of a Homo erectus?
The Homo erectus
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Who has the better tools (fire, weapons, clothes) the homo habilis or the Homo erectus?
The Homo erectus
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Who created "Base camps"?
The Homo erectus
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Who first built homes?
The homo neanderthalensis
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Who first had cultural rituals?
Homo neanderthalensis
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You had the most sophisticated tool to use the Homo erectus or homo neanderthalensis?
Homo neanderthalensis
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What is mendel's law of (particulate) inheritance?
A gene is the smallest unit that can be inherited
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What is mendel's law of segregation?
There are two alleles for every Gene, but only one is inherited
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What is mendel's law of independent assortment?
Traits are inherited independently from one another
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What does DNA stand for?
Deoxyribonucleic acid
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What is DNA?
Strands of sugar and phosphate connected by nucleotide molecules
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What are the 4 nucleotide molecules in DNA
Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytocine
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What is the nucleotide molecule beginning with an a?
Adenine
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What is the nucleotide molecule beginning with a t?
Thymine
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What is the nucleotide molecules beginning with a G?
Guanine
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What is the nucleotide molecule beginning with a c?
Cytocine
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What does Adenine pair with? (DNA)
Thymine
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What does Thymine pair with? (DNA)
Adenine
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What does Cytocine pair with? (DNA)
Guanine
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What does Guanine pair with? (DNA)
Cytocine
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What are the DNA pairs?
A-T and C-G.
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What does the process sequence of nucleotides dictate?
The synthesis of protein molecules that regulate the development of a body
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What is a gene?
A segment of DNA
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What unit are Genes?
The basic unit of heredity
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How many genes do humans have?
25,000
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What do genes do?
Act as instructions to make proteins
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Each sequence of nucleotides specifies an...?
Amino acid
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What do genes direct?
The production of proteins
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How do genes express themselves?
Via the effects proteins have
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Where are genes located?
In chromosomes
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What do chromosomes contain?
A particular sequence of genes (pairs of genes)
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How many chromosomes does each sperm carry?
23
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How many chromosomes does each ovum (egg) carry?
23
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What is it called when an egg and sperm meet?
Meiosis
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When an egg and sperm meet what happens to the chromosomes?
They pair up
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What is each Gene-pair called?
An alele
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If both parents contribute the same alleles for a pair of genes that combination is called?
Homozygous
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If both parents contribute different alleles for a pair of genes that combination is called?
Hetrozygous
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If both parents contribute different alleles to a pair of genes what happens?
The trait the Gene expresses is determined by which Gene is dominant and which is recessive
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An organisms genotype is?
The Gene it carries
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An organisms phenotype is?
It's observable characteristics
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An organisms phenotype is determined by..?
The genes and the environment
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What are four evolutionary forces?
Mutation, migration, genetic drift and natural selection
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What evolutionary forces introduce variance?
Mutation and migration
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What evolutionary Force causes genes to be filtered and genes to be shuffled?
Natural selection
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What does genetic drift do?
It is random "sampling error" no direction
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What is mutation?
A random change in DNA
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Do all mutations matter to evolution?
No (only those that can be passed onto offspring do)
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Where does mutation occur?
In reproductive cell
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When does migration happen?
When a gene moves from one population to another
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When does genetic drift occur?
When bad luck and random chance Wipeout or drastically reduced certain genes
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Who first came up with the idea of natural selection?
Charles Darwin
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What are the three components in natural selection?
1. there must be variation in the population for a trait. 2. The trait must impact reproductive success. 3. the traits must be heritable
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Organisms vary considerably within and between a species. True or false
True
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What is the benefit of organisms varying considerably within and between a species?
It provides raw material for natural selection
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How are traits passed onto the new generation?
Through reproduction
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What is the bottom line of evolution?
Reproduction
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Do inherited traits play a role in the biological evolution of organisms?
Yes
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Are some traits more useful in the organisms environmental niche than others?
Yes
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Are useful traits which help survival and reproduction more likely to be passed on?
yes
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Are some mutations more favourable than others?
yes
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Are more favourable mutations more likely to be inherited?
yes
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What are the four important developments in evolution?
Perception/action, bipedalism, encephalisation, language
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Why is perception/action an important evolutionary development?
Because it allows organisms to respond to more detailed information from the environment which then requires more complex nervous systems and brains
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Why is bipedalism an important evolutionary development?
Because it gives you great and mobility and frees up the hands for tools
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Why is encephalisation an important evolutionary development?
Increased brain to body size is good because it allows rapid learning and other things requiring a large complex brain
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Why is language an important evolutionary development?
Because it allows us to organise as a social group and pass on information
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What is good evidence for the idea that evolution influences our behaviour?
Animal husbandry (breeding animals
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How does animal husbandry support the idea that evolution influences our behaviour?
Because we can breed animals for certain behaviour traits
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How can our behaviour function to increase our reproductive success?
Increasing chances of survival, mating strategies, child rearing and social behaviour
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What traits, behaviours and neural machinery did we evolve to improve our chances of survival?
Detecting lying and cheating, bonding with babies, cognitive bias towards caution and fear, emotions
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What type of studies have helped us to understand genetics?
Twin studies
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What are identical twins called?
Monozygotic
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What are non identical twins called?
Dizygotic
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How have twin studies helped us look at inheritable behaviours?
Because if we compare MZ twins to DZ twins we can identify behavioural traits with a possible genetic component
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What is an issue with twin studies?
They were raised in the same environment even separate twins are likely to be raised in the same culture
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Is there evidence for mental health problems to have a strong genetic component
yes
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Are several genes most likely responsible for mental health issues?
yes
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What is altruism?
The unselfish concern of one individual for the welfare of another
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Is there a benefit to altruism?
It would seem so many species live in altruistic communities
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Is there a problem with altruism being an important tool?
Yes it is hard to see a benefits of hurting yourself to help another
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Who looked at why alturism is important?
Hamliton (1964,1970) and Maynard Smith (1964)
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Why did Hamilton (1964,1970) and Maynard Smith (1964) say alturistic behaviour is good ? (kin selection)
It a rose to protect our family our family has the same genes as us so if they survive so will the genes.
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What is the evidence for Hamilton (1964,1970) and Maynard Smith (1964) theory that altruistic behaviour exists to protect your family?
Parenting
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What is the name of Hamilton's (1964,1970) and Maynard Smith's (1964) theory that altruistic behaviour is there to protect your family?
Kin selection
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What is a problem with Hamilton's (1964, 1970) and Maynard Smith's (1964) kin selection theory?
It does not explain altruism towards strangers and friends
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Who came up with reciprocal altruism?
Trayers (1971)
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What did Trayers (1971) say about reciprocal altruism?
That it exists because humans (and other social animals) benefit from cooperating in groups
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Why is altruism reciprocal and not unconditional?
Because some people would take advantage of it so we only be kind to those who have been kind to us
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Card 4

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Card 5

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