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  • Created by: TJGroves
  • Created on: 12-04-14 12:11
What are effects called when an infection attacks the body?
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What are the different ways microorganisms can attack the body?
Directly damage cells / produce poisons and toxins
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What are the different types of microorganisms?
bacteria fungi viruses
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What does bacteria need to reproduce quickly?
warm , moist conditions with alot of nutirents
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What does a virus need to reproduce?
other cells
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What does the immune system do?
Fight off invading microbes
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What does an immnue response always involve?
White blood cells
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What are white blood cells able to do?
Detect things that are 'foreign' to the body
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What happens when they detect something?
Engluf microbes and digest them
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What is an antigen?
Substances that trigger immune responses / usually just protein molecules on surface of microorganism
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What are anitbodies?
proteins that are specific to a particular antigen
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What do anitbodies do once they have latched on?
They can mark the microorganism for the WBS / Neutralise virus or toxins / kill them directly
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What does White blood cell do one antigen is recognised?
Cell divides so even more anitbodies are produced
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What happens to cells after original infection has gone?
Stay around and become memory cells
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What is the purpose of a memory cell?
They reproduce quickly if same antigens enter body. kill microorganisms before you become ill (known as immunity)
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What is a vaccine?
a safe version of a dangerous microorganism
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What does immunisation involve?
Injecting dead or inactive microorganisms that carry same antigens / memory cells are also produced
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How can an epidemic be prevented?
Make sure a large percentage if the population are vaccinated
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Why can vaccines and drugs never be completely safe?
People can have different side effects due to genetic differences
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What is an antimicrobial?
Chemicals that inhibit (stop) the growth on microorganism
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Give an example of an anitmicrobial.
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What can antibiotics not be used to kill?
Colds and viruses
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How do microorganism become resistant to antimicrobials?
Random mutations in their genes means that they have different characteristics and can are less affected
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Why should you always finish your antibiotics?
As if you dont more bacteria will become resistant and cause problems for other people
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Why are drugs tested in a laboratory first?
to eliminate any potential risk of it being harmful to humans
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What are they tested on next?
After being tested on two types of mammal (usually monkeys and rats) they will be tested on humans so that accurate conditions are used
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What are sometimes used in drugs trials?
Placebos (fake treatments) to see if its just a psychological thing
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What are the different types of trials?
Blind Trials / Double-blind trials / Open label trials
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What is a blind trial?
the patients don't know if they've been given drug or placebo
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What is a double-blind trial?
Patients and scientists don't know who is given placebo or drug
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What is an open-label trial?
Both patients and scientists know what is being given
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What supplies blood to the body?
Heart and blood vessels
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What sort of organ is the heart?
Double pumping organ
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What sort of blood does the right side (of person) of heart pump?
Deoxygenated blood
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Therefore what does the left side (of person) pump?
oxygenated blood
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What are the three major types of blood vessel?
Arteries / Veins / Capillaries
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What are the functions and structure of the arteries?
carry blood away from the heart / From heart at high pressure / walls are strong and elastic
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What are the functions and structure of the veins?
Carry blood back to heart / At lower pressure / bigger lumen to help blood flow more easily / valves to keep flowing in one direction
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What are the functions and structure of capillaries?
Branch off from arteries / very small / Carr blood very close to cell to allow substances to diffuse in and out / supply nutrients and take away wastes
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How is heart rate measured?
Beats per minute (BPM)
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Describe how blood pressure increases and decreases when your heart pumps blood?
When heart contracts blood is forced out therefore pressure increases / When relaxed pressure decreases an heart fills with blood
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Why is high blood pressure dangerous?
Risk of heart disease / arteries can be damaged / if fatty deposits build up artery is blocked and could cause it to break causing blood clots /
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What would happen if the coronary artery is blocked?
part of heart will receive no oxygen and will cause a heart attack
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What lifestyle factors increase risk of heart disease?
Poor diet (cholesterol) Smoking / Illegal drugs / Excessive alcohol drinking / stress
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How can you reduce risk?
Regular moderate exercise /
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What is epidemiology?
The study of patterns of diseases and the factors that affect them
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What can these studies help to identify?
Lifestyle risk factors / genetic risk factors
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What is homeostasis?
Maintaining a constant internal environment (balancing inputs with outputs)
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What does negative feedback do?
Counteracts change
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Draw the negative feedback iagram
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Why is balancing water levels important?
So that levels are correct for cell activity
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Where can water inputs be gained from?
Drinks food respiration
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What are some water outputs?
Sweating / breathing / Faeces and urine
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What organ helps to balance substances?
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What do the kidney's do?
Filter molecules from blood e.g. water sugar salt and waste / they also reabsorb things sugar, salt, water
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What does concentration of urine depend on?
The concentration of the blood plasma
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What factors can cause this to vary?
External temp / exercise level / intake of fluid
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What happens when you sweat?
Sweat contains water so water is lost. kidneys reabsorb more water back into blood leavign small amounts of urine quite concentrated
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What hormone is the concentration or urine controlled by?
ADH (anti-diuretic hormone)
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How do drugs affect ADH production?
interferes with natural state of affairs - affecting your urine
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What does alcohol do to ADH production?
Supresses ADH production therefore less water absorbed and can lead to dehydration
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Does Ecstasy increase or deacrease ADH production?
Increases ADH production therefore smaller amounts of concentrated urine will be produced
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the different ways microorganisms can attack the body?


Directly damage cells / produce poisons and toxins

Card 3


What are the different types of microorganisms?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What does bacteria need to reproduce quickly?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What does a virus need to reproduce?


Preview of the front of card 5
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