1. What is vertical direct effect with Treaties?
- Individuals vs the State
- Individual vs Individual
- State vs State
- Individual vs EU
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2. What is another case example of direct effect working?
- Van Duyn v Home Office
- Dafrenne v SABENA
3. What is dualism?
- Incorporation of law requires two channels of communication
- EU law has to be translated into national law
- EU law takes effect straight away
- National law takes priority over international law
4. Can directives be horizontally directly applicable?
- No, it makes better sense to not let them
- No, but this creates an anomaly
- In the future, maybe
5. When can estoppel be used?
- After the directive becomes fully binding
- only in certain circumstances
- when the CJEU allow it