Other questions in this quiz

2. Where does the doctrine of Direct Effect come from?

  • Judge-made
  • Treaties
  • Member States
  • Academics

3. How has the CJEU improved the problem of horizontal direct effect

  • Allowing for case by case exceptions, widening the definition of the state
  • Making directives binding on all MS authorities, and making them horizontally directly effective in certain circumstances?
  • Widening the definition of the state, and making directives binding on all MS authorities
  • Making them horizontally directly effective

4. When can estoppel be used?

  • Whenever
  • only in certain circumstances
  • After the directive becomes fully binding
  • when the CJEU allow it

5. What is another case example of direct effect working?

  • Marshall
  • Dafrenne v SABENA
  • Ratti
  • Van Duyn v Home Office


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