Other questions in this quiz

2. What is another case example of direct effect working?

  • Marshall
  • Van Duyn v Home Office
  • Dafrenne v SABENA
  • Ratti

3. What is dualism?

  • Incorporation of law requires two channels of communication
  • EU law has to be translated into national law
  • EU law takes effect straight away
  • National law takes priority over international law

4. Can directives be horizontally directly applicable?

  • Yes
  • No, it makes better sense to not let them
  • No, but this creates an anomaly
  • In the future, maybe

5. When can estoppel be used?

  • After the directive becomes fully binding
  • only in certain circumstances
  • when the CJEU allow it
  • Whenever


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