Difficult Parts of Disease.

Climate.
Mosquitoes and tsetse flies favour warm, humid, tropical climates.
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Relief.
Higher altitudes = lower temperatures and increased rainfall, e.g. in Africa these parts are too cold or mosquitoes and flooding can lead to diseases such as Hepatitis A/E and dysentery in LIDCs.
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Water Source.
Stagnant water affects prevalence of diseases such as parasitic worms in water spreading disease.
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Seasonal Variation.
Flue and respiratory illnesses peak during winter in north hemispheres, vector-borne diseases transmitted by mosquitoes/flies/ticks peak in (sub)-tropic rainy seasons, Fly pops raise in South Asia in Pre/post-monsoon season. Tsetse, sleep sickness.
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Physical Factors of Vectors.
Vectors; mosquitoes, tsetse flies, fleas, parasitic worms and snails.
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Climate Change.
Warmer/wetter conditions = increased in malaria and dengue fever geographically. Spread of lyme disease and sleeping sickness Northwards. WHO predicts spread will affect 77m globally by 2090 in South Africa. some may disappear when E.Africa too hot.
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Epidemiological Transition (1/5).
Over economic development, transition from infectious diseases to chronic, degenerative ones as main cause of deaths with increasing lifespans.
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Epidemiological Transition (2/5).
Age of infection/famine; 20-40, poor sanitation/hygiene, little food security, infections and nutritional deficiencies.
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Epidemiological Transition (3/5).
Age of reducing pandemics; 30-50, improved sanitation and diet, reduced infections and increased CVD incidents.
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Epidemiological Transition (4/5).
Age of degenerative/man-made diseases; 50-60, increased ageing, poor diet, less physical activity and more addiction. High blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, smoke-linked cancers and CVD.
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Epidemiological Transition (5/5).
Delayed degenerative diseases; 70+, reduced risk behaviours, health promotion and treatments. CVD and cancers main causes of mortality with life-extending treatments. Dementia and ageing diseases occur.
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Caffeine.
Tea/Coffee/Cocoa. (sub)-tropical conditions with temps of 20-30*C and rainfall of 1000-2000mm/year. Stimulants central nervous system, heart and muscles.
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Quinine.
Dried bark of cinchonas. Temperature above 20*C. Average rainfall of over 200mm over 8 months in humid conditions. Malaria.
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Morphine.
Dried latex seed pods for pain relief. In warm, humid conditions of 30-80*C.
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Grassroot strategies.
Small communal projects focussing on needs of people, often favoured by NGOs such as Oxfam. Education, assistance and engagement of local people are key factors.
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Zoonotic Diseases.
Free animal movement, Urbanisation creating habitats bringing animals and humans closer, no effective vaccination programme, poor hygiene, prolonged close contacts e.g. farms/zoos.
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Reduce Human Exposure to H5N1.
Reduce chances go infection therefore emergence of pandemic virus.
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Strengthen Early Warning System.
Ensure affected countries, WHO and international community have data and specimen to make an accurate risk assessment.
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Intensify Rapid Containment Operation.
Delay international spread of virus.
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Build capacity to cope with pandemic.
Ensure all countries have formulated and tested pandemic response plans and WHO can fully perform leadership role.
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Coordinate Global Research and Development.
Ensure pandemic vaccines and antiviral drugs are rapidly and widely available shortly after outbreak and that scientific understanding evolves rapidly.
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Phases of Hagerstand's Model (1/2).
Primary stage: Strong contrast in disease of origin of outbreak and remote areas. Diffusion: New centres of outbreak occur at distance from source and reduces spatial contrast.
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Phases of Hagerstand's Model (2/2).
Condensing: number of new cases is more even in locations, regardless of source distance. Saturation: diffusion decelerates as incidence of spread is peaking.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Relief.

Back

Higher altitudes = lower temperatures and increased rainfall, e.g. in Africa these parts are too cold or mosquitoes and flooding can lead to diseases such as Hepatitis A/E and dysentery in LIDCs.

Card 3

Front

Water Source.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Seasonal Variation.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Physical Factors of Vectors.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

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