Core Biology - Diet, Infection & Neurones

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What should a balanced diet contain?
carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals
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What can happen if your diet isn't balanced what can happen?
Can become malnourished
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What is the metabolic rate?
The rate at which chemical reactions take place in your cells
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What can metabolic rate be affected by?
Genes - inherited from parents
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What are proteins important for in the body?
Growth and repair
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What can a high level of cholesterol in the blood increase?
The risk of developing plaques in the walls of the arteries
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What can eating saturated fats raise?
Blood cholesterol levels
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What are unsaturated fats found to lower?
Blood cholesterol levels
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What is LDL?
'Bad' cholesterol that is found to cause heart disease
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What is HDL?
'Good' cholesterol that can protetct against heart disease by helping to remove cholsterol from blood vessel walls
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What are the microorganisms that cause disease called?
Pathogens
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What happens if bacteria reproduce rapidly inside the body?
They produce toxins (poisons) that make us feel ill
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What do viruses do when in a body cell?
They reproduce and destroy it then invade other cells
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What is an epidemic?
A wide spread of people catching a disease
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What is a pandemic?
A disease affecting a whole country or worldwide
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What process to phagocytes go through and how?
Phagocytosis - They move towards the bacteria and then surround it, they then kill it and digest it
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What are Lymphocytes and what do they do?
They produce chemicals called antibodies and stick to the pathogens, they sometimes kill it directly or they stick to it
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What do some lymphocytes make?
Antibodies that stick to the toxins and destroys them
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What makes each antibody and antitoxin special?
They are each specific to different pathogens and toxins
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What are antibiotics?
Drugs that kill bacteria inside your body, without killing your own cells
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What happens if bacteria become resistent to the anitbiotic and what is the name of the process?
Once the bacteria has mutated it then multiplies, this is called natural selection
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What is MRSA?
A superbug, it is resistant to most antibiotics
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What is the MMR vaccine?
A vaccine that makes you immune to measles, mumps and rubella
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What is a vaccine made of?
A small amount of dead or inactive virus
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How are antibodies made?
White blood cells attack the dead or inactive virus and then make the antibody they need to prevent in the future
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How do new infectious diseases appear?
Mutations in bacteria or viruses
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How do you avoid contamination?
Sterilise the equipment, e.g holding innoculating loop in flame. Make sure you don't touch or breathe on the agar jelly. Seal petri dish. Keep at room temperature
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What do nerves contain and what do they do?
They contain special cells called nerve cells which transmit impulses to and from the brain and spinal cord
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What do glands secrete?
Secretes hormones which are transported around the body by hormones
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What is adrenaline and what does it affect?
It is a hormone which affects the heart, breathing, eyes and digestive system
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What is information carried as in the nervous system?
Electrical impulses
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What neurones transmit impulses from CNS to effectors?
Motor neurones
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Which neurones transmit impulses from CNS to receptors?
Sensory neurones
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Where are rod cells? What are they sensitive to?
At the back of the eye... sensitive to light
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How does the brain use the impulses from the different parts of the retina?
Uses it to construct a picture
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What can happen if your diet isn't balanced what can happen?

Back

Can become malnourished

Card 3

Front

What is the metabolic rate?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What can metabolic rate be affected by?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are proteins important for in the body?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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