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Define Balanced Diet
A diet that provides an adequate intake (and correct proportions) of energy and nutrients for the maintenance of our body.
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What are the 3 Macronutrients?
Carbs, Fats+Oils, Protein
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What elements do Carbs and Fats+Oils contain?
C, H and O
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What else does protein contain apart from C, H and O?
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What are the uses of the three macronutrients?
Carbs - Energy Source, Fails+Oils - Energy Source and Insulation, Protein - Growth and tissue repair
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What are the micronurients? Examples?
Vitamins and Minerals e.g. Vitamin C, Na, K, Ca
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What are vitamins and minerals used for in the body?
Healthy cell growth and repair
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What are the other two important nutrients? Uses?
Water - Osomtic balance and effective secretion, Fibre - Healthy digestive system
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Why do we need a balanced diet?
Maintain healthy cell function, Growth + Repair, Better performance + productivity, Stronger immune system, Learn more effectively
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What are the extra energy requirements of teens?
More calories, More protein. Females -> More Iron. Males -> More calcium.
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What are the extra energy requirements of pregnant women?
More calories, protein, vitamins and minerals. Folic acid.
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What are the extra energy requirements of lactating women?
More calcium, vitamins, minerals, proteins, iron and carbs.
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What are the extra energy requirements of the elderly?
Less Macronutrients, supplements of vitamins and minerals.
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What is obesity?
When health is impaired by excessive fat deposits.
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What is the BMI of obese people?
Greater than 30. Body weight 20% or more above that recommended for your height.
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Where is obesity increasing the most? Why?
In developed countries. eg. USA, UK. People are eating more than they need and are excerising less.
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In the UK, what % of 1. Men are obese? 2. Women are obese
1. 25%. 2. 20%
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What are the effects of eating too little?
Lacking in energy, Signs of protein energy malnutrition, Deficiences impacting health e.g. Vitamin C - Scurvy, Vitmain D - Rickets
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BMI calculation
weight in kg / (height m)^2
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What are the main health risks associated with obesity?
CHD/CVD, Type 2 diabetes, Cancer, Hypertension, Arthritis, Stroke
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What are the effects of too much salt in the diet?
Lowers water potential. Increases water held in blood causing hypertension. Hypertension can damage the arterial lining causing atherosclerosis and CHD
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What are the effects of more LDL's than HDL's in the diet?
LDLs remove cholesterol from the liver and deposit it the arterial wall causing atherosclerosis and CHD.
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What is the effect of too much cholesterol in the blood?
Atherosclerosis and CHD.
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What is cholesterol, where is it found in the body and what type of food is it in?
A type of lipid made and broken down in the liver found in animal foods.
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What is cholesterol used for?
Making steroid hormones, bile acids and Vitamin D. Regulates plasma membrane fluidity
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Why can't cholesterol travel in blood plasma by itself and what allows cholesterol to travel in the blood?
It is water soluble. It is coated in phospholipids and proteins to forming a lipoprotein.
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How large are lipoproteins?
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What are the two types of lipoprotein?
High Density Lipoprotein and Low Density Lipoprotein.
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What do LDL's do?
Remove cholesterol from the liver and deposit it in the arterial walls.
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What do HDL's do?
They remove cholesterol from the tissues and store it in the liver
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What type of lipoprotein is an unsaturated fat? (Has a c=c bond)
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Which type of lipoprotein has less lipids?
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Monomer of 1) carbs 2)proteins 3)nucleic acids
1)monosaccharide 2) amino acid 3)Nucleotide
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Polymers of 1)Proteins 2)Nucleic acids 3)Carbs
1)Polypeptide 2)Polynucleotide 3)Polysaccharide
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What type of bond does amylose have?
alpha 1-4 glycosidic bond
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Is there branching in amylopectin?
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Is glycogen branched and what type of bonding does it have?
Yes. alpha 1-4 glycosidic bond
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What is the monomer of cellulose and is it soluble?
Beta glucose. Insoluble.
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How many polypeptide chains does Hb have?
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What type of protein is collagen?
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Describe the tertiary level of protein structure?
Futher folding of Beta pleated sheet/ Futher coiling of alpha helices. Disulphide bridges, ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds
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Uses of lipids
Energy Source, Energy Storage, Insulation, Protection, Steroid hormones, membranes
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What does a phospholipid consist of?
Glycerol, Phosthetic group, 2 fatty acid tails
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Why are phospholipids such a good source of energy?
Easily hydrolysed to release ATP
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Properties of water
High latent heat of evapouration, Solvent, Freezes to form ice, Cohesion, Surface tension
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Food test for: 1) Starch 2) Non reducing sugar 3) Proteins 4) Lipids
1) Iodine Blue -> Black 2)Boil w/ HCl, neutralise with NaHCO3, boil with bendict's soln. Blue -> Brick Red 3)Add biruet reagent Blue -> Purple 4) Add alcohol and drops of water. White clouds
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Which organic bases are purines?
A and G
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% change
Difference btwn old and new value. Divide by old value. x100.
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Three types of rna and their uses
mRNA - Copy of DNA strand that travels out of nucleus to RER for protein synthesis. tRNA - Carries amino acids. rRNA - RIbsomes
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What is a biological catalyst?
Speeds up rate of reaction w/o being changed in the process.
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Define Activation Energy
Energy required for a reaction to proceed
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Lock and key hypothesis
Substrate + Enzyme -> ESC -> EPC -> Product + Enzyme
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Effect of temperature on rate of reaction
Increased kinetic energy = More collision = More ESC's = More EPC's = More product made within a shorter amount of time
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Induced fit hypothesis
Active site changes shape to allow substrate into active site. Takes into account the 3-D structure of enzymes
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are the 3 Macronutrients?


Carbs, Fats+Oils, Protein

Card 3


What elements do Carbs and Fats+Oils contain?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What else does protein contain apart from C, H and O?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are the uses of the three macronutrients?


Preview of the front of card 5
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