Diet & Coronary Heart Disease (2.2.1)

HideShow resource information
What is coronary heart disease?
A common disorder of the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood. It's a major cause of death in developed countries.
1 of 18
How does heart muscle die?
The ability of cardiac muscle to contract depends on it receiving continuous oxygen supply. Muscle uses oxygen for aerobic respiration- provides energy needed to contract. Oxygen supply fails, muscle can't contract. Heart muscle lacking oxygen dies.
2 of 18
Describe the development of an atheromatious plaque.
Part of artery lining is damaged. Over time, cells divide in the artery wall and there is a build up of lipids. Exercise or stress can make the plaque break. Blood enters the crack. Platelets in the blood are activated and a clot forms.
3 of 18
Describe atherosclerosis.
It is the deposition of fatty substances in the coronary arteries. It narrows the size of the lumen, restricting the blood flow and depriving the heart of oxygen. It develops slowly, but develops much faster in people who smoke or have a poor diet.
4 of 18
What is angina?
Pain down the left shoulder, arm and left side of chest during exercise.
5 of 18
What is thrombosis?
If untreated, blood clots may form around around the plaque as the RBCs come into contact with the damaged collagen in the artery wall.
6 of 18
What is cardiac arrest?
Where severe myocardial infarction causes the heart to stop beating. No pulse can be felt and the victim rapidly loses consciousness.
7 of 18
What dietary components seem to have a clear link with CHD?
Salt, HDLs and LDLs.
8 of 18
How does salt link to CHD?
Lowers water potential in blood. Water's drawn out of cells into blood by osmosis. Increases volume of blood, so increases pressure on vessel walls. Too much salt leads to permanently higher BP- hypertension. Leads to the start of athersclerosis.
9 of 18
What are lipoproteins?
Tiny balls of fat and protein in the blood.
10 of 18
What makes a lipoprotein dense?
A higher amount of protein present.
11 of 18
What do we need cholesterol for?
For our membrane structure and to make steroid & sex hormones.
12 of 18
Where does cholesterol come from?
Some of the food we eat, but the liver can also make it.
13 of 18
How are HDLs linked to CHD?
They are made from unsaturated fats, cholesterol and protein. These carry cholesterol from our body cells to the liver. The liver uses it to make bile or breaks it down. They lower blood cholesterol and reduce risk of CHD. They are a good thing.
14 of 18
How are LDLs linked to CHD?
They're made from saturated fats, cholesterol & protein. They carry cholesterol from liver to body cells, where they bind to receptors and are taken up. They can deposit cholesterol in blood vessels. They're a bad thing & increase the risk of CHD.
15 of 18
What has research shown about LDLs?
The more LDLs there are in the blood, the less able body cell receptors are to respond to it and take it up. So less is removed from the blood and more is deposited in the arteries.
16 of 18
Do we eat lipoproteins?
No, we eat different types of lipids which then form lipoproteins.
17 of 18
How can we increase the ratio of HDLs:LDLs in our diet?
Avoid foods with animal/ saturated fats such as butter, cheese and cream. Try to eat more unsaturated fats- things made from vegetable or fish oils. Try to eat a diet which is generally low in fats.
18 of 18

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How does heart muscle die?

Back

The ability of cardiac muscle to contract depends on it receiving continuous oxygen supply. Muscle uses oxygen for aerobic respiration- provides energy needed to contract. Oxygen supply fails, muscle can't contract. Heart muscle lacking oxygen dies.

Card 3

Front

Describe the development of an atheromatious plaque.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe atherosclerosis.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is angina?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Health, illness and disease resources »