Diabetes

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Hyperglycaemia
High blood sugar. Symptoms: polyuria, thirst, weight loss, fatigue,
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Hypoglycaemia
Low blood sugar. Symptoms: irritability, food cravings, fatigue, headaches, dizziness, shaking, confusion
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Glucagon
Hormone secreted by alpha cells. It targets hepatocytes and causes: glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, use of fatty acids in respiration. Has a GPCR and its second messenger is adenylyl cyclase
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Insulin
Hormone secreted by beta cells. It targets hepatocytes, muscle cells and brain cells to cause: more glucose channels in cell membranes, glycogenesis, glucose use in respiration, more glucose converted to fats. Has a tyrosine kinase receptor
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C peptide
Formed from preproinsulin alongside insulin
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GLPI
Glucagon-like peptide 1: part of prohormones called incretins, produced from the same gene as glucagon, promotes insulin and insulin action
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Type I
Diabetes as a result of an autoimmune destruction of beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. There is a complete lack of insulin
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Type II
Diabetes as a result of insulin resistance, beta cell failure or not enough insulin produced. Strongly associated with obesity and onset usually occurs after 40 yrs of age
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Oral glucose tolerance test
A short-term diagnosis of diabetes - measures the blood sugar level on an empty stomach and then again 1 hour after drinking a glass of lucozade
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HbA1C
A long-term diagnosis of diabetes - haemoglobin can bind to glucose in the blood, so the more glucose present in blood the more likely bound to Hb. RBCs have a lifespan of 8-12 weeks, so its a measure of blood sugar levels across 3 months
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Ketoacidosis
A build up of ketone bodies in the bloodstream can lower pH, leading to coma or death. Mainly affects type I diabetics
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Retinopathy
Microvascular complication of diabetes: bursting of blood vessels towards eye; main cause of blindness
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Nephropathy
Microvascular complication of diabetes: impairs filtration of blood in the kidneys; may result in renal failure in the long-term
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Neuropathy
Microvascular complication of diabetes: degenerative disorders of the peripheral nerve; can lead to loss of sensation in feet and legs, erectile dysfunction, bladder dysfunction
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Hypertension
Macrovascular complication of diabetes, as well as lipid disorders (high LDL and low HDL), cardiovascular disease and stroke
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Metformin
Insulin sensitiser drug which blocks gluconeogenesis by the liver and increases glucose uptake. Cannot cause hypoglycaemia
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Sulphonylureas
A drug which stimulates insulin release from beta cells, has a quick onset of action. But risk of hypoglycaemia and weight gain. Example: Glicalazide
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Incretins
A drug which stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion from beta cells and reduced glucagon secretion from alpha cells. No risk of hypoglycaemia. Example: GLP1
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Thiazolidinedione
Drugs which reduce insulin resistance by activating transcription factor PPAR that controls genes which acts on insulin resistance. Can cause fluid retention and warning of bladder cancer
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SGLT2 inhibitors
Inhibitor drugs which prevent the reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys, and it is secreted in the urine instead. Increase risk of urine infection but no hypoglycaemia
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Low blood sugar. Symptoms: irritability, food cravings, fatigue, headaches, dizziness, shaking, confusion

Back

Hypoglycaemia

Card 3

Front

Hormone secreted by alpha cells. It targets hepatocytes and causes: glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, use of fatty acids in respiration. Has a GPCR and its second messenger is adenylyl cyclase

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Hormone secreted by beta cells. It targets hepatocytes, muscle cells and brain cells to cause: more glucose channels in cell membranes, glycogenesis, glucose use in respiration, more glucose converted to fats. Has a tyrosine kinase receptor

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Formed from preproinsulin alongside insulin

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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