Develpoment

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What is the aim of Prelinguistic Development?
to produce and understand language that you have never heard before
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How do we split language up at a prelinguistic stage?
Sentence - Phrases - Words - Speech Sounds
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What is the Start state in Prelinguistic Development?
infant directed speech, maternal language preference, maternal voice preference, memory for text and categorical perception
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What can we learn about Voice Onset Time in categorical perception in Adults?
speech sounds vary in phonetic features and we can artificially synthesis sounds along the VOT to varying vibrations
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What does High Amplitude sucking tell us?
Habituation paradigm, more attention to new stimuli than to old. sucking increases when sounds is changed, this shows awareness to change
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What did Eimas et al say about categorical perception in infants?
infants have a categorical perception from birth. They habituated 1 & 4 month olds to /ba/. They had 3 groups Control, Different and Same. Different increased sucking.
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What did Werker et al discover about the Head Turning Procedure?
Infant hears sound, sound then changes and they turn their head and are given a reward (colourful light display). 6-8 months infants are universal listeners
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Could Werker et al findings be replicated?
Yes! In non-native speech contrasts. Hindi and Salish. BUT this sensitivity was lost after the first year
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Why do we lose this universal sensitivity?
If we dont use sounds, we loose the ability to distinguish it in speech. sounds we hear on a daily basis are the sounds we learn to understand.
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What tools can we use to see how we ding words in speech?
Spectrographic analysis, which looks at the energy in speech. We see speech as a continuous auditory stream. But the gaps in speech sounds don't correlate with the written text.
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What did Jusczky and Aslin discover about preferential listening?
At 6-7.5 months infants segment words from speech, they listen longer to the target word. Infants familiarize with words, hear two streams of words when they turn their head to the light they hear the word. Learn that light = sounds
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what did Cutler and Norris find out about prosodic cues?
Metrical segmentation strategy. Stresses = start of a new word
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Jusczky, Cutler and Redanz found what out about prosodic cues?
That at 6 & 9 months we have a dominance to our native stress patteren
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But do infants use stress cues to segment speech?
Jusczyk et al familiarised infants with target words. Strong/Weak and visa versa. 7.5 months prefer S/W very English! W/S not till 10 months
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How do we use syllables?
Saffron et al found that infants use the statistics of speech to segment out whole words from nonsense strings. We learn the co-occurrence of syllables with other syllables.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Sentence - Phrases - Words - Speech Sounds

Back

How do we split language up at a prelinguistic stage?

Card 3

Front

infant directed speech, maternal language preference, maternal voice preference, memory for text and categorical perception

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

speech sounds vary in phonetic features and we can artificially synthesis sounds along the VOT to varying vibrations

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Habituation paradigm, more attention to new stimuli than to old. sucking increases when sounds is changed, this shows awareness to change

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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