Developmetal neurobiology

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What is Synaptogenesis?
The formation of a synapse between two neutrons
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What is a neuromuscular juntion?
A connection between a neutron and muscle in the PNS
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What is the first step on Synaptogenesis?
The growth cone moves towards a myotubule
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What signalling two molecules direct a growth cone?
Slits and Netrins
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What receptor dos slit bind to?
ROBO
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What receptor does netrin bind to?
UNC
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What molecules are secreted to direct growth cone to target muscle?
Neurotrophins
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What membrane bound molecules direct growth cone to target muscle?
Ephrins
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What receptors do Ephrins's bind to?
Ephs
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What type of proteins bong a vesicle to the plasma membrane?
CAMs
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What CAMs are on the post synaptic membrane?
Neuroligins
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What CAMs are on the pre synaptic membrane?
Neurexins
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What do CAMs do?
Organise the active site and post synaptic density
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What do scaffolding proteins do?
Form protein complexes along the plasma membrane
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What facilitates the clustering of post synaptic receptors?
Agrin
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What happens when neural activity begins in the new axon?
Gene expression of post synaptic receptors is switch off at non synaptic sites
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What is the term for when multiple axons retreat?
Synapse elimination
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What is axonal transport
Movement of organelles and proteins to and from the cell body
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What is the term for the cytoplasm of the axon?
Axoplasm
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What is the cytoskeleton made up of?
Microtubules and microfilaments
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What are microtubules made of?
Tubulin
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What are microfilaments made up of?
Actin
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What type of movement if forward?
Anterograde
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What type of movement if backwards?
Retrograde
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What motor protein is responsible for anterograde movement?
Kinesin
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What motor protein is responsible for retrograde movement?
Dynein
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Give an example of a chines
KIF 5
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What does KIF transport?
SNAPs and mitochondria
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What molecule does dynein need to bind to?
Dynactin
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Who first identified slow and fast transport in axons and what year?
Weiss and Hiscoe in 1948
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What did Weiss and Hiscoe observe?
Molecules move along axons at different rates
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What is transported in fast axonal transport?
Vesicular cargo
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How far does fast transport material move per day?
100mm
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What is transported in slow axonal transport?
Soluble cargo and cytoskeletal proteins
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Why is slow transport slow?
Frequent pauses during movement
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How far does slow transport material move per day?
8mm
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What are neurodegenerative diseases connected to?
Defects in axonal transport
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Why would an action potential be reduced?
if sodium was removed from the system
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How does anaesthetics work?
Block sodium channels
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When are sodium pump channels needed?
To maintain ionic concentrations
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When are voltage-gated channels open?
When membrane is depolarized
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What happens when a membrane is depolarised?
sodium moves into the cell
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How is a cell repolarised?
when sodium and potassium move out of cell
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What axon transport defect causes rare neurodegenerative diseases?
Genetic mutations in motor neurons
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Give an example of a rare neurodegenerative disorder
L1 syndrome
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What axon transport defect causes sporadic (common) neurodegenerative diseases?
Missregulation of fast transport
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What happens to a neuron if material can't be transported in it?
It dies
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What response does a cell uno when it is damaged?
Wallerian degeneration
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How are neurotransmitters inserted into vesicles?
An ATPase pumps in proton which are replaced by the neurotransmitter using an antiproton
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What are MEPPs?
miniature end plate potentials
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Who invented the ultra freeze device?
Heuser and reece
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What type of neutrons did house and reece use?
Frog neuromuscular junctions
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What cytoplasmic proteins bind to vesicles in docking?
NSF and SNAPs
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What do SNAPs bind to?
SNAREs
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Give an example of a V-SNARE
Synaptobrevins
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Give an example of a T-SNARE
Syntaxin
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What causes an ion channel to open, releasing neurotransmitter?
The binding of 4 calcium ions
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What is an ionotropic receptor made up of?
A ring on polypeptides
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What does binding of a ligand to an ionotropic receptor do?
Causes a conformational shape change
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What kind of response does an activated ionotropic receptor initiate?
Fast acting
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Give an example of an inotropic receptor
Nicotinic receptor
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What binds to nicotinic receptor?
Acetylcholine
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Where are nicotinic receptors found?
Neuromuscular junctions
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what are the 5 nicotinic receptors
A1, A2, B1, B2, B3
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What is a metabotropic receptor made up of?
A single chain polypeptide with 7 loops
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What shape are the transmembrane portions of the protein?
Alpha helices
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What is the extracellular domain of a metabotropic receptor called?
N- terminus
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What is the intracellular domain of a metabotropic receptor called?
C- terminus
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What is the name given to metabotropic receptors?
G-coupled proteins
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What kind of response does an activated metabotropic receptor initiate?
Slow acting
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Give an example of a metabotropic receptor
Adrenergic receptor
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What bind to adrenergic receptors?
Adrenaline
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What happens when a ligand bind to a g-coupled protein?
It breaks and replaces GDP with GTP
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What binds to the GTP molecule in g-coupled responses?
the alpha subunit
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What does the alpha subunit bind to activate secondary messengers?
Adenyl cyclase
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What does adenyl cyclase do?
Converts ATP to cAMP
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Where are adrenergic receptors found?
Smooth muscle
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What is an example of a quaternary ammonium neurotransmitter?
Acetylcholine
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What is acetylcholine made from?
acetyl coa and choline
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What effect does acetylcholine have when it bind to a receptor?
Excitatory effect
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What are monoamine neurotransmitters made of?
An amoratic ring and carbon chain
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What is are two example of monoamine neurotransmitters?
adrenaline and noradrenaline
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What is adrenaline made from?
Tyrosine
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What is the collective name for adrenaline and noradrenaline?
Catecholamines
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What nervous system does adrenaline work on?
Sympathetic nervous system
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What nervous system does noradrenaline work on?
Parasympathetic nervous system
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What effects do catecholamines have on muscle?
Excitatory effect
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What is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the vertebrate NS?
L-glutamate
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What receptors do L-glutamate bind to?
NMDA and AMDA receptors
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What effect does L-glumate have on muscle?
Excitatory
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What is GABA made form?
Glutamine
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What effect does GABA have on muscle?
Inhibitory
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What receptors does GABA bind to?
GABA a, b and c
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What effect does GABA have on neuronal activity?
A calming effect
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What type of neurotransmitter is tachykinin?
A polypeptide
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What effect does tachykinin have on blood vessels?
dilutes them
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What receptor does tachykinin bind to?
NK1
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What synthesises somatostatins?
neuroendocrine neurons
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Are somatostatin excitatory or inhibitory?
Inhibitory
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What receptors do somatostatins bind to? (5)
SST
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Who first studied neural induction?
Spemann and mangold
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What embryo did they work on?
Amphibian
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What did Spemann and mangold do to the embryo?
Transplanted the dorsal lip of the blastopore into a new location
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What effect did inserting the dorsal lip have?
Induced formation of a second axis and neural plate
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What was the dorsal lip referred to as?
The organiser
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What is the organiser known as?
Hensons node
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What is tensions node?
A discrete tissue that induces surrounding tissue to adopt a particular fate
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What does the organiser produce?
BMP inhibitors
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Other than BMP antagonists,what else is required for neural induction?
FGFs and wnt
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What gene do all ectoderm cells express due to FGFs?
Sox3
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What does sox43 allow cells to become?
Neural cells
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What does BMP block?
neual induction
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What produce BMP?
Ectoderm cells
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What happens when BMP binds to a cell surface receptor?
Smad 5 and 4 are phosphorylated
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What are SMADs?
transcription factors that alter gene expression
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Why are frogs good model organisms?
They're easily accessible because they develop outside of the body
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What are frog embryos specifically used for?
molecule injection
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Why are chicks good model organisms?
They have a short incubation time and have a well developed NS after a few days
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What are chick embryos specifically used for?
Transplanting pieces of live embryo into other
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Why are zebrafish good model organisms?
The embryos are fertilised and develop outside of the mother
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What are zebrafish embryos specifically used for?
Observing morphogenesis
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What gene induces formation of specialised glial cells on dorsal end of neural tube?
Snail
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What is the specialised cell population?
roof plate
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What has t happen before floor plate can be made?
closure of neural tube
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What induces floor plate formation?
the notochord
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What cell signalling molecule is produced by dorsal ectoderm?
BMP
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What cell signalling molecule is produced by notochord?
SHH
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What is a morphogen?
Signalling molecules that induce cell response using a concentration gradient
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Which cells are positioned closet to the floor/ roof plate?
Blue cells
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How is the notch pathway involved in neural crest cell differentiation?
If notch gene is expressed, the ell will become glial
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What makes NC crest neuronal?
No expression of notch
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How do NC cells become autonomic cells?
BMP signalling and expressing mash 1
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How do NC cells become sensory cells?
BMP signalling and wnt signalling
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What gene do neural crest cells have to express?
Noelin-1
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What genes are activated by BMP in delamitation?
snail 1 and 2 and rhoB
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Whats cams are down regulated?
N-cadherin and cadherin 6
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What is migration also called?
EMT
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What gene initiates migration?
Slug
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What short range signalling molecules guide NC cells?
Slits and semaphorins
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What receptor does semaphoring bind to?
Neuropilins
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What did golgi discover?
silver staining
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What did golgi describe the brain as?
A reticulum
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What did Hodgkin and Huxley observe?
That depolarisation overshoots
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What is synapse translated as?
I clasp
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Who name the synapse?
Sherrington
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Where are greys type 1 neurons found?
On dendritic spines
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What are type 1 also called?
Assymetric synapse
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Where are greys type 2 neurons found?
Cell bodies
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What are type 2 also called?
Symmetric synapse
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What is a reciprocol synapse?
One where messages can be send in both directions
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Where do excitatory junction potentials occur?
Neuromuscluar junction
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What happens with distance from a synapse?
The depolarisation reduces
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After axon damage what does the distal part do?
Undergoes wallerian degeneration
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What happens during wallerian degeneration?
Macrophages are recruited and damaged myelin and axon are removed
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What is the endoneulium?
The protective outer later of neurons
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What activates schwann cells to myelinated newly formed axon?
Neurotrophins
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What is involved in a glial response?
recruitment of oligodendrocyte precursors, astocytes and microglia
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What does the glial scar express?
Nogo
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What activates the rho pathway?
Nogo
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What can block the rho pathway from being activated?
An intracellular rise in cAMP
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How can the rho pathway be blocked?
Nogo antibodies and antagonists to nogo
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What is creb?
A transcription factor
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What does it bind to?
CRE
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How is CREB activated?
Rise in cAMP or Calcium concentrations activates kinases
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What is an example of a cAMP induced kinase?
PKA
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What is an example of a calcium induced kinase?
CAMII
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Who did experiments on LTP?
Bliss and lomo
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What did they test?
Hippocampus of rats
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What do pro neural genes trigger?
neural commitment
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What effect does up regulation of pro neural factors have?
Activates development of progenitor cells
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What is an example of a pro neural factor?
neurogenin 2 (NGN2)
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What is sox2 important for?
maintaining self-renewal characteristics
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What is the notch pathway needed for?
maintaining neural progenitor cells
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What gene maintains progenitor cells?
HES genes
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What do Hes proteins do?
Blocks neural differenciation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a neuromuscular juntion?

Back

A connection between a neutron and muscle in the PNS

Card 3

Front

What is the first step on Synaptogenesis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What signalling two molecules direct a growth cone?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What receptor dos slit bind to?

Back

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