Developments in Buddhist Thought - the Four Noble Truths

What are the Four Noble Truths?
Suffering (dukkha), craving (tanha), end to dukkha (nirvana) and the path away from dukkha (magga).
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Wha analogy is used to describe the Four Noble Truths?
The doctor analogy. Dukkha = the illness, tanha = the cause, nirvana = prognosis/forecast, magga = the cure/the medicine.
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What did the Buddha say about suffering?
''I teach but one thing, suffering, its causes and its ends"
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Who does he address in the Deer Park Sermon?
5 monks (Bhikkus).
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Which three things can we not escape?
Birth, old age and death.
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What are other examples of dukkha?
Sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief and despair (some of the 10 types of obvious dukkhas).
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Which five important things are also considered as dukkha?
The five aggregates of grasping/the five skandhas.
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Is dependent origination part of dukkha?
Yes - craving is a part of dependent origination which causes suffering, as are birth, death and old-age.
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What does ''tanha'' mean?
Craving.
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What is ''tanha"?
The Second Noble Truth, the Origin of Dukkha.
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What are the three types of tanha?
Vibhava-tanha = craving for annihilation, e.g wishing you'd never existed. Kama-tanha = sensual craving (material/sexual). Brava-tanha = becoming, e.g wanting fame.
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What is tanha a part of?
Dependent origination/12 links.
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Can tanha have positive connotations?
Yes - tanha can have positive connotations e.g craving for nirvana.
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What is the ending of dukkha/cessation of dukkha?
Nirvana
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What is the ''letting go'' part of nirvana?
Nirodha
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In the 79th dilemma of King Milinda - what is said about nirvana?
We can never know the true nature of nirvana. We cannot compare nirvana by analogy but we can compare its qualities.
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In the 80th dilemma of King Milinda, what else is said about nirvana?
Nirvana is unconditioned; it is not made of anything. It is not produced or un-produced.
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What is the fourth and final Noble Truth?
Magga - the Eightfold Path.
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What are the eight practices that should be followed in the Eightfold Path?
Right understanding, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration.
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What is right understanding?
Accepting Buddhist teachings.
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What is right intention?
A commitment to cultivate right attitudes.
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What is right speech?
Speaking truthfully and harmoniously, avoiding slander, gossip and abusive speech.
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What is right action?
Behaving peacefully and harmoniously, refraining from stealing, killing and over-indulgence in sensual practice.
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What is right livelihood?
Avoid making a living in ways that cause harm e.g exploiting people, killing animals or trading intoxicants or weapons.
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What is right effort?
Cultivating positive states of mind, freeing oneself from evil and unwholesome states and preventing them from arising in future.
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What is right mindfulness?
Developing awareness of the body, sensations, feelings and states of mind.
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What is right concentration?
Developing mental focus for this awareness.
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Which of the eight practices are grouped into ''Wisdom"?
Right understanding and right intention.
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Which of the eight practices are grouped into ''Ethical Conduct"?
Right speech, action and livelihood.
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Which of the eight practices are grouped into ''Meditation"?
Right effort, mindfulness and concentration.
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What did the Buddha compare the Eightfold Path to?
Like a raft - once it reaches the shore it is no longer needed.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Wha analogy is used to describe the Four Noble Truths?

Back

The doctor analogy. Dukkha = the illness, tanha = the cause, nirvana = prognosis/forecast, magga = the cure/the medicine.

Card 3

Front

What did the Buddha say about suffering?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who does he address in the Deer Park Sermon?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which three things can we not escape?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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