Developmental Psychology

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NATURE
Genetics
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NURTURE
Environment
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ARIES (1960)
Viewed childhood through limited texts/paintings survived from Mediaeval Time
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SHAHAR (1990)
Found evidence that some children were taking place in the adult world from the age of 6yrs
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LOCKE (1632-1704)
Only through social interaction does a child learn to speak/emotions/morals/exist within society that has been created for safe keeping of its inhabitants
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EMPIRICIST
Relies on observation/experimentation to determine the truth about something
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TABULA RASA
Soft/blank tablet of the mind
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ROUSSEAU (1712-1778)
Believed society was insincere/crooked place that was harmful to children. He believed that children that were born by luck, were angelic in nature
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NOBLE SAVAGE
The innocent, good child who becomes corrupted by society and all that is wrong within it
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THE MINNESOTA TWIN STUDY (1981) - THOMAS BOUCHARD
No significant difference in the twins raised apart and the twins raised together on measures of personality/temperament/occupational/leisure-time interests/social attitudes
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JOSEPH (2001)
Criticised Bouchard for replying too much on the assumption that genetics were responsible for the twins' similarities. They could have been motivated by sense of similarity
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THOMAS BOUCHARD
Twins who were calm/easy going as children would be more likely to report experiencing a calm/easy going childhood regardless of being raised together or apart
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PIAGET (1952)
His theory of cognitive development that covered the period from birth to around the late teenage years
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ERIKSON
Psychosocial development extended from birth right through to late adulthood. Early experiences are important in moulding who we are as children and helping us understand who we are as adults
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STAGE THEORIES
The acquisition of skills via a series of stages
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MILDREN PARTEN
Found that the theory of play has different elements
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PARALLEL PLAY (2yrs)
Play alongside each other but not with each other (e.g. use the same toys but do not interact with each other)
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COOPERATIVE PLAY (3yrs+)
Play together (e.g. the games have rules and boundaries and they play with social roles)
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DEGREE OF LANGUAGE SKILL
Convey the meaning of the game
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MEMORY
Being able to remember who is who in the game and the purpose
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UNDERSTANDING WHAT OTHER PEOPLE DO
The role they play (e.g. mummies and daddies)
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PIAGET (1932)
Children progress in linear fashion through increasingly complex stages of cognitive skills
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BUT...
It does not reflect the individual experience of the child
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CONTINUOUS
Change that occurs at a steady pace, showing constant/consistent improvement or growth
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DISCONTINUOUS
Change that occurs in what appears to be great bursts of achievement following a period of steady consolidation of knowledge or skill
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PIAGET
Younger children are not able to complete certain tasks than an older child could/would with ease (e.g. Conservation of Liquid Task - 4yr old will say thinner/taller and 6yr old will say both contain the same amount)
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FISCHER & BIDELL (2006) - ASYNCHRONOUS STAGING
The situation that arises when a child is performing at a more advanced stage in one development skill and a less advanced stage in a second developmental skill
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THEORY
Is a statement that we use to understand the world around us
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STAGE THEORIES
Based on the idea that we progress through a pattern of distinct stages over time. We pass through them in a specific order and during a specific age
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CDT - PIAGET (1962)
Describes in detail what a child shouls be able to do at 3mnths, 6mnths, 12mnths etc.
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PROGRESSIVE
Acquire more functions
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REGRESSING
Stop studying languages in order to focus more on behavioural sciences
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HIGHLY PLASTIC
Bulges of accelerated development or slim periods of slow/steady development
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Environment

Back

NURTURE

Card 3

Front

Viewed childhood through limited texts/paintings survived from Mediaeval Time

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Found evidence that some children were taking place in the adult world from the age of 6yrs

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Only through social interaction does a child learn to speak/emotions/morals/exist within society that has been created for safe keeping of its inhabitants

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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