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What is the definition of attachment?
A reciprocal emotional bond, which endures over time and can lead to certain behaviours.
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What is classical conditioning?
learning through association
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What happens before classical conditioning?
The food (unconditioned stimulus) produces a sense of pleasure (unconditioned response)
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What happens during classical conditioning?
The food (unconditioned stimulus) and the presence of a person who feeds the infant (neutral stimulus) occur together a number of times. The Ns gradually becomes a conditioned stimulus
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What happens after classical conditioning?
the person who feeds the infant (conditioned stimuls) produces pleasure (now a conditioned response.
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What is operant conditioning?
learning through reinforcement
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Who suggested that attachment is based on reinforcement?
Dollard and Miller
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What happens before operant conditioning?
hungry infant feels uncomfortable, creating a drive to reduce discomfort.
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What happens during operant conditioning?`
When the infant is fed, the drive is reduced and this produces a feeling of pleasure. food becomes a primary reinforcer.
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What happens after operant conditioning?
The person who supplies the food is associated with avoiding discomfort and becomes a secondary reinforcer, a source of reward.
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Why does attachment occur after operant conditioning?
the infant seeks the person who can supply the reward.
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What is the strength of Learning theory?
learning theory can explain attachment. infants do acquire attachment through association and reinforcement
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What did Harlow do in relation to learning theory?
conducted an animal experiment in a lab. Infant monkeys were placed in a cage with two wire mothers- the 'lactating mother' and one wrapped in soft cloth.
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What did Harlow find in his experiment into learning theory?
the monkeys spent most time with the cloth-covered mother and would cling to it especially when frightened.
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What did Schaffer and Emerson do in relation to learning theory?
conducted a controlled observation of 60babies in their homes for a period of about a year.
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What did Schaffer and Emerson find in their study into learning theory?
infants were not most attached to the person who fed them. the strongest attachments were to the person who was most responsive and who interacted with them the most.
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What was Bowlby's theory of attachment?
Babies have an innate drive to become attached and also are born with certain characteristics, called social releases, which elicit care-giving.
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According to Bowlby, when is the sensitive period?
3-6 months old.
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What happens if a baby has formed an attachment during the sensitive period?
it becomes increasingly difficult to form attachment
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What is monotropy?
the idea that the one relationship that the infant has with his/her primary attachment figure is of special significance in emotional development.
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What creates an internal working model?
the infant-mother relationship creating expectations for relationships.
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What is important for healthy psychological and social development?
bonds with many secondary attachment figures.
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What is the continuity hypothesis?
individuals who are securely attached in infancy continue to be socially and emotionally competent.
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What evidence shows that attachment is an innate process?
about impriting from studies of non-human animals (Lorenz) shows that bond formation between adult and infant is innate.
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How is the concept of monotropy supported?
about impriting from studies of non-human animals (Lorenz) shows that bond formation between adult and infant is innate.
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What is the temperament hypothesis?
the view that attachment type can be explained in terms of an infants innate temperament rather than caregiver sensitivity.
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Whats an insecure attachment?
develops as a result of caregiver’s lack of sensitive responding to an infant’s needs. May be associated with poor cognitive and emotional development.
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Whats an insecure-avoidan attachment?
infants are willing to explore and unresponsive to mothers return; generally avoid social interaction and intimacy with others.
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Whats an insecure-resistant/ambivalent attachment?
infants who are less interested in exploring and show distress on mothers return; generally they both seek and reject intimacy and social interaction
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Whats an insecure disorganised atachment?
: infants who lack consistent patterns of attachment behaviour.
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what a disinhibited atachment?
infants who display affection to strangers and may be attention-seeking
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what a secure attachment?
willing to explore, easy to soothe, high stranger anxiety. Infant is comfortable with social interaction and intimacy. Related to healthy subsequent cognitive and emotional development.
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Why does a secure attachment develop
Develops as a result of sensitive responding by caregiver to the infant’s needs.
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What was the strange situation?
A controlled observation, Infant and parent are put into a strange environment and Their reaction were observed.
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What were the results of the strange situation?
66% were insecure-avoidant, 22% were insecure-avoidant and 12% were insecure-resistant
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What What are the first 4 episodes of the strange situation?
parent and child play, parent sits while child plays, stranger enters and talks to parent and parent leaves, infant plays and stranger offers comfort if needed.
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What are the last 4 episodes of the strange situation?
*Parent returns, greets infant, offers comfort if needed, stranger leaves.*parent leaves the infant alone. *the stranger enters and offers comfort. *parent returns, greets infant and offers comfort.
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What did ainsworth find in relation to the strange situation?
that mothers of securely attached infants were more sensitive, accepting, cooperative and accessible.
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What did Ainsworths Ugandan study find in relation to cultural similarities?
various universals in attachment behaviour.
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What did Tronick et al. find in relation to cultural similarities?
despite using child rearing practices that are quite different from those in western cultures, after 6 months the infants still showed one primary attachment.
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What did Fox do and find in relation to cultural similarities?
observed infants raised infants on israeli kibbutzim in communal childrens homes. showed greater attachment to their mothers despite spending more time with community nurses, presumably because their mothers were more sensitive.
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What did Grossman and Grossman find in relation to cultural differences?
that a larger proportion of German infants tended to be classified as insecurely, rather than securely, attached than found in US samples.
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What did Takahashi find in relation to cultural differences?
that Japanese infants showed mich higher rates of insecure-resistant than in most other cultures and no evidence of insecure avoidant.
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What did Rothbaum et al, say in relation to cultural bias?
that attachment has a strong western bias, reflecting individualist ideas of the importance of autonomy.
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What did Rothbaum et al say in relation to Indigenous theories?
that attachmenttheories should be rooted in indigenous cultures.
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What is imposed etic?
a technique or theory that is developed in one culture and then used to study the behaviour of people in a different culture.it may be meaningless when used with people who have had different experience or have different values.
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What did Robertson and Robertson do in their KEYSTUDY into disruption of attachment?
Six children were studied during periods of brief separation from their parents.
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What did Robertson and Robertson find in their KEYSTUDY into disruption of attachment?
Laura and John became depressed and withdrawn. the other children coped well and returned to their families happily.
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What did Robertson and Robertsons' KEYSTUDY show in relation to disruption of attachment?
physical separation, as in cases of Jane, Lucy, Thomas and Kate, did not have a negative outcome because substitue emoptional care was offered, The emotional disruption experienced by Laura and John did appear to have negative consequences.
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What did Skeels and Dye find in relation to disruption of attachment?
a group of institutionalised children with low IQs later improved after they were transferred to a home for mentally retarded adults.
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What did Bifulco et al. do in relation to triggers and disruption of attachment?
studied 249 women who had lost their mothers before the age of 17 through separation or death. it was said that this group was twice as likely to suffer from depression or anxiety.
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What did Bifulco et al. suggest about the women from his study.?
early disruptions in attachment may make an individual psychologically more vulnerable if triggered by stressful events later in life, mental orders may develop.
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What did Hodges and Tizard do in their longitudinal natural experiment into privation?
followed a group of 65 children placed in institutional care when less than 4 months old. Caregivers in the home were told not to form attachments with the children.
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What did Hodges and Tizard find in their longitudinal natural experiment into privation?
at age 16 those children who had been adopted were closely attached to their families, which was not true of the children who had returned to their natural families
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What did Rutter et al. find in their longitudinal study of 100 romanian orphans?
the children who were adopted by British familes before the age of 6 months showed 'normal' emotional development.
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What happened to Genie and why did she never fully recover?
She was locked in a room by her father until she was 131/2. Her lack of recoverey may be due to privation or may be due to being retarded or because of the physical deprivation she suffered.
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What happened to the Czech Koluchova twins?
They spent the first 7years of their lives locked up by their stepmother and were unable to talk when found.
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what happened after Czech Koluchova twins the were found?
They were well looked after by two loving sisters and by the age of 14 had near-normal intellectual and social functioning and by the age of 20 they were of above average intelligence and had excellent relationships.
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What did the NICHD find in its longitudinal study of 1000 children of the impact of day on aggressiveness?
At age 5, children who had been in day care of any kind were rated as more assertive, disobedient and aggressive. Children in full-time day care were about three times more likely to show behaviour problems.
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What did the NICHD data show about other factors affecting aggression?
a mother's sensitivity to her child was a better indicator of reported problem behaviours than was time in child care.
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What are the 5 mediating factors when it comes to the impact of day care on aggressiveness?
Quality of care, Lack of commitment, individual differences, child's age and the number of hours.
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What did Belsky and Rovine find in relation to the impact of day care on peer relations?
that children who had received 20hours or more of day care peer week before the age of 1 were mopre likely to be insecurely attached compared with children at home.
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What did Clarke-Stewart et al. find when studying 150 children om the impact of day care on peer relations and social development?
those who were in day care were consistently more advanced in their social development than children who stayed home with mothers.
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What did Field find in his correlational study into social strategies and the impact of day care on peer relations?
a positive correlation between the amount of time spent in full-time day care and the number of friends a child had once they went to school.
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How did the Soho family centre improve their quality of care by the influence of attachment research?
each carer is assigned a maximum of 3 children and is paired with another carer who can step in if need be, thus ensuring close and consistent emotional relationship.
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How has the influence of attachment research helped institutional care?
it recommends the provision of substitute emotional care to counter the effects of physical separation.
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What were the four main factors that improved quality of day care, influenced by day care research?
importance of high-quality day care, good staff-to-child ratios, minimal staff turnover and qualified and experienced staff.
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What is classical conditioning?

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learning through association

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What happens before classical conditioning?

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What happens during classical conditioning?

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What happens after classical conditioning?

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