Developmental Psychology

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  • Created by: The Shrew
  • Created on: 06-05-16 15:27
Ontogenetic development
Biological/ Environmental
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Biological
Mechanical learning- maturation theories/ genetic programming
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Environmental
Fluid- holistic impact/ learning theory
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Piaget and Vygotsky
Interaction of both
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Piaget- 4 stages
Sensory Motor (2 yrs):walking, crawling, picking **** up/ Pre-operational (2-6 yrs):ideas, memories, schemas/ Concrete operational (6yrs- puberty):less egocentric, empathy, logical reasoning/ Formal operational (puberty):Understand things in abstract
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Cognitive structures develop at each stage in 2 ways
Assimilation (integrating new info with previous knowledge+ schemas)/ Accommodation (Internal structures adapting to external novelty)
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Development before social learning (piaget)
Little cultural variation- biological
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Vygotsky
More emphasis on culture and environment
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Bronfendrenmer- Ecological systems theory (4 systems)
Microsystem (family)/ Mesosystem (school)/ Exosystem (Social services, media)/ Macrosystem (cultural norms, goals, values
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Super + Harkness- Developmental Niche
3 structures- Physical and social settings/ Childcare customs/ Caretaker's psychology (beliefs, values, affective orientations)
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Cavalli-Sforza + Feldman- Cultural transmission
Horizontal transmission- peers/ Vertical transmission- parents/ Oblique transmission- parent's generation (teachers, relatives)
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Enculturation vs Socialisation
Being immersed in a culture/ being deliberately taught norms
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Cultural transmission
Falls between exact transmission or no transmission
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Acculturation
Cultural transmission from person to culture
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2 key features of infant development similar across different cultures
Neurological development continues after birth/ Advanced sensory systems but not motor systems
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2 key features of infant development different across cultures
Weaning- earlier bottle feeding in industrialised cultures, much later (2/3yrs) in nomadic hunters/ Birth spacing- Less developed= closer together
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Gerber and Dean- Uganda
Babies more advanced motor skills compared to Western paediatrics
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Super- Kenya
Sit up and walk before USA- specifically trained by mothers/ untrained behaviour have delay from western norms
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3 environmental factors for intrauterine development
Diet/ Baby massage popular in Africa and Indies- increases birth weight/ Baby taken away from mother in West
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Bornstein et al
Content of Speech- Japanese mothers- 'affect-salient speech'= incomplete utterances, song, nonsense- on baby's level/ other culture= information salient speech
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Motherese
Little variation across cultures- high pitch/ more variation in pitch
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Barry, Bacon and Child
Strength of socialisation across cultures
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Obedience training and responsibility training
High in countries with high accumulation of food resources/ higher in girls
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Nurturance training
Same in high and low accumulation/ higher in girls
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Achievement training/ self reliance training/ general independence training
Higher in countries with low accumulation of food resources/ higher in boys
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Size of gender difference depends on level of contribution of women
Gatherer societies= high contribution= low difference/ Hunter societies= low contribution= big difference
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High level of contribution- societies that support (4) adaptive response
Polygamy/ Exogamy/ Bride prices/ Birth control
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4 downsides to co-sleeping
Suffication, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Exposure to sexuality, Less autonomy or independence
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3 upsides to co-sleeping
More breastfeeding, can detect changes in breathing, Protective against sleep apnoea
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Autonomy vs Dependency
Proximal style= More verbal interaction, more use of objects, less body language/ Distal style= Dependency- Less verbal interaction or objects, more body contact- baby massage
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Keller
Video tapes of free play found these differences between independent cultures (Germany, Greece) and Interdependent (Cameroon, India, Costa Rica)
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Whiting
Colder= cradle/ Warms= arms or sling
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Fiske et al
Autonomy seen as immature + uncivilised in Japan and China
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Strange situation Japan and Germany
Japan= no avoidant/ most ambivalent, Germany= nearly half avoidant
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Card 2

Front

Biological

Back

Mechanical learning- maturation theories/ genetic programming

Card 3

Front

Environmental

Back

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Card 4

Front

Piaget and Vygotsky

Back

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Card 5

Front

Piaget- 4 stages

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