Development and Globalisation

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Give two ways in which the wealth of a country can be indicated.
Gross Domestic Product and Gross National Income.
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Give four indicators of quality of life.
Infant mortality rate, people per doctor, access to safe water and literacy rate.
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Give three demographic changes that occur as a country develops.
Birth rate decreases, death rate decreases and life expectancy increases.
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What political changes tend to take place as a country develops?
Transition from authoritarianism/dictatorship to liberal democracy.
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Give three cultural/social changes that may take place as a country develops.
The empowerment of women in society, increased female literacy and a decline in fertility rate.
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What does the Human Development Index take into account?
Life expectancy, literacy rate and GDP per capita.
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How were countries classified in terms of development in the 1960s?
The first world - capitalist countries in the West. The second world - Soviet/communist states. The third world - impoverished countries/all other countries.
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When did the terms 'MEDC' and 'LEDC' first start to be used?
The 1980s.
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When was the Brandt report published and what did it propose?
1980. Proposed a North-South divide.
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What are the five stages of the development continuum (in regressive order)?
Rich industrialised countries, newly industrialised countries, oil-exporting countries, former Communist countries and least developed countries.
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How much of global income do the richest fifth of the world's population receive in comparison to the poorest fifth?
Richest fifth receive 80%, poorest fifth receive 1%.
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Give five economic characteristics of least developed countries.
Low incomes, poor trade links, high debts, high trade deficit, economic instability.
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What is the average income per capita in LDCs?
Less than $745.
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Give five social characteristics of least developed countries.
Limited healthcare, high infant mortality, high prevalence of infectious disease, low literacy rate, high levels of malnutrition.
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Give two demographic characteristics of least developed countries.
Low life expectancy and much higher birth rate than death rate.
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What is life expectancy in Ethiopia compared to in the UK?
62 years in Ethiopia, compared to 81 years in UK.
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Give three political characteristics of LDCs.
Lack of democracy. Political corruption. War and conflict.
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Give an example of political corruption in Ethiopia.
Vote rigging in 2005, and spending aid money on projects that are not beneficial to development.
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Give a prominent cultural characteristic of LDCs.
Inequality - particularly between men and women, or between different social and ethnic groups.
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What proportion of men and women attended secondary school in Ethiopia between 2008 and 2010?
30% men, 23% women.
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Give two economic benefits of global groupings.
Groups can reduce trade barriers to increase trade between members. Countries can exploit comparative advantages by specialising in industries they are good at and trading for things they are less capable of producing.
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Explain how global groupings can help to progress development. Give an example.
Countries are more likely to cooperate to tackle issues such as disease, poverty, etc. E.g. The UN set 8 Millennium Development Goals.
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Give two security benefits of global groupings.
Democratic peace theory and collective security policies.
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Give four advantages of global social and economic groupings.
Increased economic development due to more trade. Declining countries/regions receive support from more successful ones. Freedom of movement allows opportunities. Better global representation for small nations.
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Give four disadvantages of global social and economic groupings.
Countries sacrifice sovereignty. Countries may feel they lose out in having to share resources with other countries. Trade agreements benefit members, but shut out external countries. Members may have to support poor countries in a financial crisis.
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How much did the UK pay to bail out Portugal in 2011?
£4bn
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What is sustainable development?
Meets the needs of the current generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
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What is economic sustainability?
Maintaining the environment in a way that will not permanently damage or alter it, so that future generations can continue to get what they need.
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What is environmental sustainability?
Treating the environment in a way that will not permanently damage or alter it, so that future generations can continue to get what they need.
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Why do economic and environmental sustainability conflict?
Economic development tends to be environmentally damaging, as productoin relies on the use on natural resources (such as fossil fuels) and produces waste (such as greenhouse gases).
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Give four arguments in favour of aid (against trade).
Linked to need, not ability to engage in trade. Agricultural protectionism of EU and US means less developed countries have limited trade opps. Trade encourages dependency on 'cash crops'. Trade needs wider infrastructure to support it.
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Give four arguments in favour of trade (against aid).
A long-term solution; more sustainable and predictable than aid. Trade allows developing countries to retain dignity-aid patronising. Aid dependency is a danger. Aid money often misspent by corrupt leaders/on ineffective 'soft power' gestures.
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What are the four processes that characterise globalisation?
Flows of capital, flows of production, flows of services and flows of people.
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When were Western domestic markets deregulated, allowing the relocation of manufacturing and services?
1970s and 1980s.
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How many TNCs were there in 1970 compared to in 2012.
There were 7000 in 1970, and over 80,000 in 2012.
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Give two positive economic impacts of TNCs in their country of origin.
Profits from abroad go back to shareholders, and tax on TNC income goes to country of origin government. Highly skilled jobs tend to remain.
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Give two negative economic impacts of TNCs in their country of origin.
Movement of manufacturing abroad can cost jobs in country of origin. This may then lead to wider decline in the area.
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Give a positive social impact of TNCs in their country of origin.
Increased range of products available.
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Give a negative social impact of TNCs in their country of origin.
Unemployment and the social problems it can cause.
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Give a positive environmental impact of TNCs in their country of origin.
Decline in local manufacturing may reduce pollution.
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Give two positive economic impacts of TNCs in host countries.
Increased employment and higher disposable incomes. This creates a multiplier effect.
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Give two negative impacts of TNCs in host countries.
Local businesses cannot compete and have to shut down. Many profits are sent back to country of origin - this is called leakage.
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Give two positive social impacts of TNCs in host countries.
May invest in health/education to make a healthy, skilled workforce. May bring new technologies and working methods into the country.
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Give three negative impacts of TNCs in host countries.
Sometimes accused of exploiting their workforce. Managerial and skilled positions tend to be given to employees in country of origin. Decisions made by TNC CEOs are in country of origin, with little consideration for host.
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Give a positive environmental impact of TNCs in host countries.
May invest in environmentally friendly technology.
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Give two negative environmental impacts of TNCs in host countries.
Manufacturing causes pollution and waste. Agricultural land/wildlife habitats lost when TNCs buy land to built factories.
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What has one of the main driving forces behind world economic growth been in the 21st century?
Development of new technology.
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How has new technology facilitated 'manufacturing efficiency'?
Work done by computers/robots is faster than humans doing the job.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Give four indicators of quality of life.

Back

Infant mortality rate, people per doctor, access to safe water and literacy rate.

Card 3

Front

Give three demographic changes that occur as a country develops.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What political changes tend to take place as a country develops?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give three cultural/social changes that may take place as a country develops.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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