• Created by: emma why
  • Created on: 04-04-14 17:40
What is a case study for spatial differences in pollution in MEDC?
Spatial variations in pollution within the UK
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What is the key factor in the distribution of pollution in the UK?
Distribution of urban areas
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What are inevitable pollution hotspots?
Cities and towns
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Why are cities and town inevitable population hotspots?
Dense concentrations of people, buildings, economic activities and traffic
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What is perhaps the least damaging form of pollution to human health?
Light pollution
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What can be seen in the distribution of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide pollution?
The urban and most populated areas of the UK
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What do carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide mainly result from?
The burning of fossil fuels, particularly coal
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Are carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide pollutants that are hazardous to human health?
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What is a byproduct of towns and cities?
Water pollution
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What is the principal cause of water pollution?
Release of treated domestic and industrial effluent into water courses
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Name significant water pollution hotspots
Thames, Humber, Mersey, Tyne
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Why is the Tyne and other rivers like it a water pollution hotspot?
Flanked by docks, port-related industries and power stations
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Does the release of warm cooling-water from power stations class as a pollutant?
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What do coastal settlements, especially resorts, have a long history of doing?
Discharging raw effluent directly into the sea
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What has reduced the amount of raw effluent being dumped into the sea and equally other waterways?
Tighter controls and modern treatment works
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What is the C02 emissions for Greater London?
50,754,000 tonnes
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What is the C02 emissions for Newcastle?
5,868,000 tonnes
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Where are the C02 tonnes emmitted annually per square klometre low?
Appearr to be at 0-1 in some central areas of Ireland, and in the Highlands of Scotland are approximately 10-32
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Where is sulphur dioxide emmisions in the UK very low?
In the Highlands of Scotland at 0.01-0.03 tonnes per km2
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What are two Year 12 case studies that can be used to illustrate the influence of urban change on social and environmental factors?
Birmingham and Dhaka
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How many people live in Birmingham and what is the population demographic like?
1 million people and is home to one of the largest Bangladeshi communities in UK
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What is Birmingham like?
3rd largest city in UK and is a modern, popular and progressive city
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What did Birmingham used to be known as?
'Workshop of the world' as an important industrial area from 18th C; deindustrialisation in late 20th C
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What is 80% of Birmingham's economic output in?
Tertiary sector suh as banking
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Where do 40% of the UK's conference trade take place?
NEC in Birmingham
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How has Birmingham changed?
Reimaging, urban managers and planners have worked hard to regenerate core of city and inner ring, financial support to attract new businesses, great support from media
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What are the problems created by urban change in Birmingham?
Strain on transport system, unemployment is high especially in inner right, uneven prospreity, polarised and disaffected population with widening gap between rich and poor
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Strain placeed on Birmingham's transport system
Roads congested by workers and commuters as many skilled workers commute from West Midlands
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Uneven prosperity in Birmingham
Prosperous core surrounded by deprived inner ring with older housing and inadequate srevices
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What is the population of Dhaka, Bangladesh?
7 million people is the capital city
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What is the impact of the growing middle class in Dhaka?
More demand for luxury consumer goods
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What do half of residents of Dhaka live on?
Less than £1.50 per day
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Historical background of Dhaka
Heavily involved in global manufacturing shift
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What is the role of Dhaka today?
Commercial core of Bangladesh with TNCs located in Dhaka due to large supplies of cheap labour;large amounts of clothing manufacturers
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How did Dhaka change?
Shift to manufacturing with goods sold in West and MEDCs, population growth as people migrate there
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Problems in Dhaka
Rickshaws (500,000 people) add to congestion, poor working conditions of informal sector (1/2mn children work for around 12p per day) and may develop developmental problems or health issues , many below poverty line, unemployment 25%, 4% population g
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What is the causeof 4% annual population increase in Dhaka?
Created by rural-urban migration and high fertility
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Issue with 4% annual population increase in Dhaka
Rate of population growth outstripping rate of new job creation
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What percentage of Uk's population is classified as urban?
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What is the average car occupancy in British cities?
1.2 people
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Why is there an increase in traffic in cities?
Car ownership increasing, increased percentage hold full driving license, decline in public transport, increased commuting when move to suburb, construction of new roads
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What was the average speed of traffic in the centre of Edinburgh in 2000?
12 mph
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What does heavy traffic do to road service?
Detrimental effect, require more frequent maintenance
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What is there concern that vibrations from traffic might be doing?
Damage to buildings
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How is traffic managed in Newcastle Upon Tyne?
Metro rapid transit system (1980), A1 Western Bypass (1990) takes through traffic away from city centre, Callerton Parkway P+R near Newvcastle Airport, pedestriasation of Northumberknad street, 10,000 parking spaces in city centre
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Which two employers in Newcastle introduced flexible working hours to reduce congestion?
Newcastle City Council and the Department of Social Security
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is the key factor in the distribution of pollution in the UK?


Distribution of urban areas

Card 3


What are inevitable pollution hotspots?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Why are cities and town inevitable population hotspots?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is perhaps the least damaging form of pollution to human health?


Preview of the front of card 5
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