Development of Sex and Gender Roles

  • Created by: SHorner96
  • Created on: 28-05-18 16:19
What does gender refer to?
Socialised differences - being aware of gender is an early form of social categorisation
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What is gender identity?
The ability to label your own and others' gender - achieved by age 3
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What is achieved by age 4 and is the idea that gender often stays the same?
Gender Stability
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What is gender constancy?
The idea that gender cannot easily change, and is independent of changes in appearance - achieved by age 7.
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What is having an increasing effect on children's understanding of gender?
Media portrayal
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What are general findings among Western societies?
In infancy there are more similarities than differences, but differences in toy preference show from age 2. At school age there is increasing preference for same-sex play partner.
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Which gender differences are shown at school age?
Boys are more aggressive and prefer group friendships, and girls are more empathic and prefer partnered friendships.
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Which trends are found in Non-Western societies?
Girls are encouraged to be more nurturant, obedient and responsible. Boys are encouraged to be more self-reliant, and achieve more.
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What are biological factors that may influence gender differences?
Sex hormones and genetics
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What is characterised by over-production of androgens?
Congential Adrenal Hyperplasia
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What does Indirect socialisation (part of social learning theory) imply?
Boys and girls will preferentially imitate the behaviour of same sex models - implies some cognitive concepts of gender are already in place.
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Which theory states that parents socially reinforce sex-appropriate behaviour, and negatively reinforce sex-inappropriate behaviour?
Direct socialisation (part of social learning theory)
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Who can influence gender behaviour in children?
Parents, Teachers & Peers
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What is Self-Socialisation?
A cognitive-developmental theory that states children imitate same sex models because they feel it's what other children of their sex should do
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What can be defined as a cognitive structure that creates a set of expectations about observation and imitation of gender characteristics?
Gender Schemas
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What do social-cognitive theories combine?
Social learning and gender schemas
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What is Peer Identification?
Children monitor their behaviour according to how they think same-sex peers would react
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What is Self-Regulation?
Children monitor behaviour according to internalised, self-socialised standards of what they think they should do. More motivated to imitate a behaviour if they feel they can master it, & will selectively observe/imitate based on gender schemas.
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What is peer segregation the result of?
Initially from differing play preferences, but when children are older it is a result of differing gender identities.
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Why is there currently a 'masculinity crisis?'
Masculine behaviour is becoming less socially acceptable, and there is less certainty of social roles.
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Which theory declares that gender is hard-wired?
Brain organisation theory
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What are some methodological issues with gender research?
Over-generalisation, short-lived results, few meta-analyses. Findings are highly sensitive to peer culture and personality differences.
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What is a criticism of social learning theories in terms of gender?
Do the parents influence the children, or do the children influence the parents
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is gender identity?

Back

The ability to label your own and others' gender - achieved by age 3

Card 3

Front

What is achieved by age 4 and is the idea that gender often stays the same?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is gender constancy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is having an increasing effect on children's understanding of gender?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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