development of attachment

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when did schaffer and Emmerson carry out their study?
the 1960's
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how long does the indiscriminate attachment last for?
until two months
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towards the end of indiscriminate attachment what becomes more pronounced?
the infants desire for human interaction, and iteractional synchrony
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at this stage who can conmfort them?
anyone
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At the begginging of attachment what are infants able to do?
distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people
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who can comfort thenm at stage 2?
anyone
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what is stage three called
descrimate attachment
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when does the thrird stage begin?
7 months
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they begin to exhibit what form of behviours
stranger anxiety and separation anxiety from the primary caregiver
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what percentage of the time are the mothers the PAF (primery attachment figure)
65%
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what percentage of the time are the mothers the FJOA (first joint object of affection)
30%
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what percentage of the time are the fathers the PAF (primery attachment figure)
3%
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what percentage of the time are the fathers the FJOA (first joint object of affection)
27%
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what causes a person to become a primary attachment figure
their responsiveness to the infant
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What is stage 4 of attachment?
multiple attachments
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how many infants form multiple attachments within 1 month of becoming attached?
29%
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how many infants form multiple attachments within 6 months of becoming attached?
78
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Do infants experience seperation anxiety in these secondary relationships?
yes
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E1: How might Schaffer and Emerson's data be unreliable?
Mothers who were less sensetive to their infants protsets were less likely to report them creating systematic bias and invalid data
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E2: how did Schaffer and Emerson's study have a biased sample in terms of class?
working callss population + may not apply to other social grous
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E2: how did Schaffer and Emerson's study have a biased sample in terms of history?
Parenting has changed since the 1960's as mmore moithes go out to work and more fathers stay at home becoing the main carer
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in the last 25 years what has been the change in male parenting style?
the number of dads who stay to look after children has quadrupled
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E3: are multiple attachments equivalent?
Bowlby: monotropy + secondary attachments = good safety net / Rutter (1995) = all attachments are equal
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What did Lamb (1997) show?
There is little difference in accsability of mothers and fathers to the infants needs = fathers aren't psychological equipped for PAF
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why might men be less sensitive than women? (biological)
the female hormone of oestrogen underlies caring behavior making women more oriented towards interpersonal goals
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why might men be less sensitive than women? (social)
cultural expectation carry sex stereotypes that effect male behavior
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what did Heerman (1994) show?
men are less sensitive to infant cues than women
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what did Frodi (1978) Show?
there is little physiological difference exhibited by men and women when resopnding to an infant
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what did Frank (1997) show?
when a man is primary caregiver both parents are share the role of PAF
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what did Geiger (1996) show?
Men can play a valuble role as sa secondery atacmment figure by providing more challenging situations and a more exiting playmate
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what did Woolett (1992) show?
A fathers lack of sensetivity fosters problem spolving and places greater connotative and communicative demands on children
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Card 2

Front

how long does the indiscriminate attachment last for?

Back

until two months

Card 3

Front

towards the end of indiscriminate attachment what becomes more pronounced?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

at this stage who can conmfort them?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

At the begginging of attachment what are infants able to do?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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