Development Gap

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How can development be measured?
GDP, PPP, HDI
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What are the millenium development goals
established in 2000 by the UN to reduce global poverty by 2015. e.g. eradicate exteme poverty, promote gender equality and achieve universal primary education
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Theories for the gap
Rostow, dependency, core and periphery
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What is Rostow's model
Country has to pass through areas of underdevelopment and a series of economic growth. Money needs to be transferred from develped countries. Includes the shfit in industry e.g. agriculture to manufactoring
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What is the dependency theory
Coutnries like USA control and exploit less developed countries. However they need that in order to have employment and FDI. But developed countries also need them for cheap labour and materials
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IMF role in development gap
lend money or debt relief to help countries develop, needs privitised companies and so hinders development
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TNC's
employment , FDI, infrastrucute, exploit workers and fund leak back to parent company
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Case studies for trade exacerbating the develppment gap
Banana wars and Senegal Nut
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Governments role
Provide physical infrastructure, attract investment, provide education etc.
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NGO's role
schemes where governments have failed, non bias, help most vulnerable, reliant on donations
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Physical causes of the gap
agriculture potential, water availablilty, soil quality
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Soicla causes
Population levels. birth rates. education
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Economic
Location of TNCs, Trade links, dependancy on undustries.
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Political causes
Debt levels, courruption
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Impact of development in DRC
life expectancy 56, female literacy rate of 50%. 63% of people live on less than $2 a day. Pristine environments due to lack of development. mineral rich areas have been exployed e.g. rainforest which lead to an endangered mountain gorilla.
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India's caste system
classes defined by birth, 40% of dailts live on less than $2 a day
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Mega city
Dhaka Bangladesh
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Dhaka problems
23% unemployed, 5% live in permenant housing , high levels of disease
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Solutions to problems
back to home schemes, sanitation improvments, promoted use of clean gas cooking stoves
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top down aid (+/-)
fails to reach the poorest, often tied, WB implement conditions.
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What is the brandt report
suggests each country should give 07% of GNP
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Pergau Dam
£415 million project (half paid by UK) to provide HEP to Kuala Lumpa if they paid £1 billion for British arms
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Bottom up (+/-)
involves local people, most vulnerable, rely on publics generosity
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Tree aid
employment, improve soil quality for other farming, children can go to school, no hunger season
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Fair trade
fair price, works with small scale farmers. Products are more expensive and so consumers dont always buy them
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Uganda- fair trade
91% depend on coffee trade for an income
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Debt cancellation
debts written off allows countries to invest in social projects, privatisation to cut debt often sold to TNC's
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Card 2

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What are the millenium development goals

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established in 2000 by the UN to reduce global poverty by 2015. e.g. eradicate exteme poverty, promote gender equality and achieve universal primary education

Card 3

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Theories for the gap

Back

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Card 4

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What is Rostow's model

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Card 5

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What is the dependency theory

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