Development and Disorders of Language

  • Created by: MXP527
  • Created on: 20-05-18 12:08
List 3 features of a 'true' language
Productivity and Generativity; Symbolism; Displacement
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List 4 properties of CDS
Exaggerated intonation contours; Immediate repetition; Less syntactically complex utterances; Clear turn-taking and eye contact
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List 3 issues with studying CDS
Cause and effect; Confounding variables; Little variation in linguistic skills
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List 3 difficulties of word recognition
Variability in speech input; Co-articulation; Lack of clear word boundaries
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List 2 cross-linguistic differences in babbling
Segments mirror input; Prosodic features mirror input
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What is the pre-lexical cues hypothesis?
Word recognition built on sound system, around 6 to 9 months.
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List 3 features of early words
Short and easy; Frequent and relevant concepts; Various syntactic and semantic categories
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List 3 types of errors children make with word production
Overextension, Under-extension, Invented words
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List 5 reasons why errors are made
Category boundaries different to adults; Category boundary may be missing; Slow to retrieve; Child pointing out similarity; Child joking
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List 6 requirements for learning word meanings
Low-level learning mechanisms; Conceptual prerequisites; Linguistic pre-requisites; Non-verbal cues and CDS; Lexical principles; Syntactic bootstrapping
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List 2 reasons why verbs are harder than nouns
Dynamic vs Static and resistant to change; Relational aspect of verbs harder
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List 4 research methods to study acquisition of morphology
Elicitation; Pointing; Meta cognitive tasks; Identification tasks
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List 4 reasons why acquisition of inflectional morphemes are hard
Short and easy to miss; semantically complex; express abstract relationships; encode several syntactic features
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List 5 reasons for the order of how morphemes are acquired
Perceptual saliency of morpheme; semantic complexity; syntactic complexity; input frequency; cross-linguistic differences
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List 4 properties of 2 word utterances
Combinations of different syntactic categories; dominated by content words; variety of semantic relationships; idiosyncratic word ordering
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How are passive and active sentences different?
The way syntactic position is mapped onto argument structure or 'thematic roles'
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List 5 features of communication in children with ASD
50% never develop expressive language; Not compensated by gesture or mime; Expressive language fails to respond to communication; Fails to initiate and maintain conversation; Failure to use joint attention
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List 3 preserved linguistic abilities in children with ASD
Vocabulary; Segmental phonology; Syntax
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List 4 impaired linguistic abilities in children with ASD
Semantics; Idiosyncratic language; Pronouns; Non-segmental phonology
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List 5 ways ToM is linked to linguistic disorders of ASD
Restricted and unexpected speech content; Echolalia; Lack of social skills; Abnormality of stress patterns; Pronoun problems
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List 5 ways deaf children communicate
Oral communication and lip reading; Total communication; Bilingual education; Cued speech; Home signs
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List 3 consequences of hearing impairment in language
Impaired speech; Delayed lexical and syntactic development; Reading
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List 2 reasons why reading is impaired in deaf children
Limited knowledge of english sound system; Grammar and lexicon is acquired along with reading
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List 5 diagnostic criteria for SLI
Language test scores deviate 1.25; normal IQ; normal hearing; no neurological or oral dysfunction; normal social interaction
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List 4 types of linguistic problems in SLI
Lexical development; phonology; morphology and syntax; prgamatics
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List 3 deficits thought to underlie SLI
Impaired temporal processing of auditory stimuli; Impaired processing of grammatical morphemes, Impaired visual paired associate learning
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List 4 factors that effect acquisition of a second langauge
Relative amount of input; linguistic differences in languages; CDS vs overheard; Code switching for close languages
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List 4 linguistic advantages of bilingualism
Meta-linguistic awareness; flexibility in learning additional labels; advanced social communicate tool; flexibility in learning language patterns
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List 3 non-linguistic advantages of bilingualism
Inhibition / Attention; Creative thinking; Attention to subtle environmental differences
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List 5 associated speech and language problems in children with DS
Mental retardation; hearing and sight problems; larger tongues; hypotonia; joint attention deficits
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List 5 things children need for communicative competance
Linguistic knowledge; Pragmatics; Routines and scripts; Social roles and socially appropriate behaviour; ToM
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What is Communicative competence?
The use of language to reach goals
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What is audience design?
Tailoring of referential expressions to listeners need's
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List 4 causes of atypical language development
Sensory impairment; Learning difficulties; autism; SLI
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List 4 features of a word to have true word status
Communication; Consistent phonological shape; consistent meaning; extend to multiple exemplars
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List 2 tasks there is a strong genetic basis for in SLI
Verb inflection tasks; Phonological STM
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List 3 lexical prerequisites to word learning
Child knows words have meaning; Child knows mapping is symbolic; Child knows mapping is consistent across time and space
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What is the order of how syntactic bootstrapping is acquired?
Syntactic frames constrain grammatical category; Grammatical category constrains word meaning
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List 5 examples of impaired lexical development in SLI
Over and under extension of meanings; Poor word retrieval; Late talkers; Slow acquisition of words; Domain specific problems
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List 2 examples of impaired phonological development in SLI
Poor intelligibility of speech, poor processing of phonetic inputs
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List 3 examples of impaired morpho-syntactic development in SLI
Morphemes are ommitted over misused if unknown; morphemes are omitted in they appear redundant; narrative skills deficits
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List 2 examples of impaired pragmatic development in SLI
Unlikely to initiate / guide conversations; Non verbal communication poor
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Exaggerated intonation contours; Immediate repetition; Less syntactically complex utterances; Clear turn-taking and eye contact

Back

List 4 properties of CDS

Card 3

Front

Cause and effect; Confounding variables; Little variation in linguistic skills

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Variability in speech input; Co-articulation; Lack of clear word boundaries

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Segments mirror input; Prosodic features mirror input

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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