Development

Function of the brain stem
It carries a motor and sensory nerves to and from the brain to the rest of the body. It controls autonomic functions.
1 of 71
Development of the brain stem
Most highly developed part of the brain. It must be well developed for survival.
2 of 71
Function of the cerebellum
This is near the top of the spinal cord near the brain stem and is important for movement. It coordinates movement with sensory information and has some input into language and emotion
3 of 71
Development of the cerebellum
It is one of the last parts of the brain to reach maturity and forms in the hindbrain at week 15
4 of 71
Function of the thalamus
The thalamus is a sensory processing station which receives messages from senses and turns these into appropriate motor and behavioural responses
5 of 71
Development of the thalamus
The forebrain divides to form a front and back cavity which develops by week 16 of pregnancy
6 of 71
Function of the cerebral cortex
It is divided into two halves forming hemispheres. It is responsible for higher cognitive functions and decision making
7 of 71
Development of the cerebral cortex
It starts to function around the time a baby is born and develops throughout our lives
8 of 71
Autonomic Functions
Functions of the body which we do not consciously control like heartbeat and sleeping
9 of 71
Nature
Refers to genetic influences, characteristics you inherit from your ancestors
10 of 71
Nurture
Refers to all other influences - how you are raised, your experiences and your environment
11 of 71
Aspects of nature
Twin studies: intelligence is very similar, twins are separated and raised apart - they were similar at 39 years old. Newborn babies have no past experiences and have the ability to recognise a human face
12 of 71
Aspects of nurture
Mothers who smoke give birth to small babies, babies can recognise their mother's voices at birth and mammals are similar to babies in terms of brain development at birth
13 of 71
Schema
A mental framework of beliefs and expectations that influence cognitive processing - we are born with some, but others develop through experience
14 of 71
Piaget's Theory
Children are little scientists that, even from a young age, have the ability to understand complex skills. They are always learning and discovering new things. Children explore the world
15 of 71
Assimilation
A form of learning that takes place when we aquire new information or a more advanced understanding of an object, person or idea (no radical change in understanding)
16 of 71
Detail about assimilation
This expands an original schema: Schema + New information = More advanced schema
17 of 71
Accomodation
A form of learning that takes place when we aquire new information that changes our understanding of a topic to the extent that we need to form one or more new schemas to deal with the new understanding
18 of 71
Detail about accommodation
Creates a new schema: Scehma + Radically new information = New schema
19 of 71
Stage Theory
Development follows an invariant pattern (it doesn't change). The behaviour in questions gets better by the stage and the pattern is true for everyone - it is universal
20 of 71
The Sensori-Motor Stage
Birth - 2 years: Thoughts and behaviour are generally the same, they examine surroundings and place objects into schemas they gradually make sense of the information
21 of 71
Features of the sensori-motor stage
Body schema: it recognises that it exists physically; Motor coordination: child learns to coordinate body parts; Object permanence: child understands that an object still exists when they cannot see it, this develops at 8 months
22 of 71
The Pre-Operational Stage
2-7 years: Child attends nursery and starts school, cognitive development gets better each year, child learns to use symbols and 'real thinking' starts
23 of 71
Features of the pre-operational stage
Animism: childrentreat inanimate objects as if they are alive; Reversibility: the child is unable to work backwards in their thinking; Egocentrism: the child sees and thinks of the world only from their point of view
24 of 71
The Concrete Operational Stage
7-11 years: De-centring as the child overcomes egocentrism, can categorise objects by size and colour, drops animism, can think backwards and can solve practical problems
25 of 71
Features of the concrete operational stage
Linguistic humour: children starts enjoying and understanding word games; Seriation: can put things into order based on opinion; Conervation: children know the properties of certain objects are conserved even if they appear to change (mastered it)
26 of 71
The Formal Operational Stage
11+ years: Adolescents, develop ability to think about abstract problems, can problem solve to the level of adults and they can use logic
27 of 71
Features of the formal operational stage
Hypothetical thinking: children can think without physcial prompts
28 of 71
Evaluation of Piaget's Theory (1)
+ Applicable to real world. Schemas apply it to education. Pre Piaget (1960) classrooms expected children to sit in silence and weren't activity-orientated. Children should enage in tasks to learn
29 of 71
Evaluation of Piaget's Theory (2)
+ The basic idea is correct, it supports that children get better as they are older, overall concepts are correct, ability gets better by stage
30 of 71
Evaluation of Piaget's Theory (3)
- Overestimate older children's abilities. Many studies tested children using tasks that made sense to them. They performed better than expected so the basics of thinking is more advanced.
31 of 71
Concept of Readiness
Children can only learn what their cognitive stage allows them to. Young children should learn through constant activities and older children should have discussions and carry out research.
32 of 71
Discovery Learning
Learning should be child-centred and active as they learn best by doing. They should develop individually and raise questions where the teacher is a facilitator.
33 of 71
Individual Learning
Children go through the same stages in the same order, however they do it at different rates. Activities should be arranged for individuals rather than a whole class.
34 of 71
Evaluation of Piaget's Link to Education (1)
+ It has been very influential on education. Plowden report (1967) recommended child-centred, active learning approaches. Primary education has changed a lot as a result, so it has been valuable in education.
35 of 71
Evaluation of Piaget's Link to Education (2)
- It is possible to improve without practice. It suggests that performance should not improve through practice, but Bryant and Trabassa (1971) logic task can be done with practice. So, educationshouldn't be based on the age of the child.
36 of 71
Evaluation of Piaget's Link to Education (3)
- Traditional methods may be good. This involves repeating information out loud. Neville Bennett (1976) compared traditional and child-centred approaches who did better in a series of tasks. Some learning may not be best through discovery learning.
37 of 71
Conservation
The ability to realis the quantity remains the same even when the appearance of an object changes
38 of 71
Naughty Teddy Aim (McGarrigle and Donaldson)
To see whether the child's reaction would be the same if the change in counters was accidental rather than deliberate
39 of 71
Naughty Teddy Sample
80 children from Edinburgh (40 from nursery and 40 from primary school)
40 of 71
Naughty Teddy Procedure
Introduced a naughty teddy who escaped from his box. Shown counters in original position and asked which row had more. Reddy jumped out and moved counters so one row was longer. Children were asked again.
41 of 71
Naughty Teddy Findings
Row deliberately changed (41% were correct) and when row was accidentally changed 68% were correct. Primary school children did better than nursery children.
42 of 71
Naughty Teddy Conclusion
Original study underestimated younger children's abilities. Pre-operational children shouldn't be able to conserve according to Piaget.
43 of 71
Evaluation of Naughty Teddy (1)
- Sample was biased. Children were from the same school and may have done better due to educational background rather than age. Validity of conclusion is in question.
44 of 71
Evaluation of Naughty Teddy (2)
- Children may not have noticed the change. They may have been distracted by the teddy. Moore and Frye (1986) found that they said the same even when a counter was removed. They weren't paying attention.
45 of 71
Evaluation of Naughty Teddy (3)
+ Study challenges Piaget. Child friendly tasks may be more reliable and show different result. Chalenging other researchers is important in science as it leads to new ideas.
46 of 71
Egocentrism
The child's tendency to only be able to see the world from their own point of view.
47 of 71
Policeman Doll Aim (Hughes)
To find out whether children cope better with an egocentrism test when it makes more social sense to them.
48 of 71
Policeman Doll Sample
30 children from Edinburgh (3.5-5 years old)
49 of 71
Policeman Doll Procedure
Hughes showed the children two intersecting walls. Policeman doll was placed in different positions and asked the children to hide the boy doll. They were corrected if wrong. Two policeman dolls were introduced, they were asked to hide the boy doll.
50 of 71
Policeman Doll Findings
90% of children could position the boy doll correctly. In more complex trials with 5 or 6 walls, 3 year olds had a 60% success rate and 4 year olds had a 90% success rate.
51 of 71
Policeman Doll Conclusion
Original study underestimated younger children's abilities. Piaget said pre-operational children could not overcome egocentrism. Older children did better.
52 of 71
Evaluation of Policeman Doll (1)
+ Task made sense to children. Reflects a game of hide and seek. They fully understood what they had to do 0 no ambiguity. Reasearcher checked understanding so there is high validity.
53 of 71
Evaluation of Policeman Doll (2)
- Researcher may have unconsciously given the answer. Hinted at solution (glanced). It may lack validity.
54 of 71
Evaluation of Policeman Doll (3)
+ Study challenges Piaget. Some of his studies confused children. Child friendly tasks may be more reliable. Challenging other researchers is impoortant in science as it leads to refining ideas.
55 of 71
Fixed Mindset
Giving up, can't improve, frustration, dislikes challenges, ability is pre-determined.
56 of 71
Growth Mindset
Likes challenges, feedback is construtive, failure is an opportunity to grow.
57 of 71
Evaluation of Dweck - Mindsets (1)
Both mindsets involve praise. Praising effort leads to doing things for approval rather than for themselves. It can discourage independent behaviour.
58 of 71
Evaluation of Dweck - Mindsets (2)
+ Real-world application. It improves performance in schools, businesses and relationships. It motivates future effort.
59 of 71
Evaluation of Dweck - Mindsets (3)
+ Research supports. Seventh graders with a growth mindset got better grades. This approach can improve performance.
60 of 71
Visual (visualiser)
Reading information and looking at it.
61 of 71
Auditory (verbaliser)
Being asked questions and having group discussions.
62 of 71
Kinaesthetic
Moving objects into different positions.
63 of 71
Evaluation of Learning Styles (1)
+ A change from traditional methods. It is a mixed approach, encouraging learners to adopt a more varied approach. It has been beneficial.
64 of 71
Evaluation of Learning Styles (2)
- No supporting evidence. Researchers have found no evidence to support using different instructional methods for visualisers and verbalisers. It undermines the value of learning styles.
65 of 71
Evaluation of Learning Styles (3)
- Too many different styles. It is impossible to put into practice. The concept is unworkable, they are not useful.
66 of 71
Praise
To express approval of someone else and what they have done. Praise is rewarding and increases motivation.
67 of 71
Self-efficacy
A person's understanding of their own capabilities.
68 of 71
Evaluation of Willingham's Learning Theory (1)
+ Concepts are drawn from scientific research. We can trust his conclusions.
69 of 71
Evaluation of Willingham's Learning Theory (2)
+ Specifically focussed on applications to learning. His reseach has real-world value.
70 of 71
Evaluation of Willingham's Learning Theory (3)
- Diagnosis on the basis of brain difference may not be possible. It is unlikely there will be a clear correspondence netween activity in the brain and behaviour. It is misleading.
71 of 71

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Most highly developed part of the brain. It must be well developed for survival.

Back

Development of the brain stem

Card 3

Front

This is near the top of the spinal cord near the brain stem and is important for movement. It coordinates movement with sensory information and has some input into language and emotion

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

It is one of the last parts of the brain to reach maturity and forms in the hindbrain at week 15

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The thalamus is a sensory processing station which receives messages from senses and turns these into appropriate motor and behavioural responses

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Development of personality resources »