development 12 Emotional development 2

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  • Created by: CaliFish
  • Created on: 04-05-17 15:01
what is a theory, led by neuroscience, that helps explain emotional development
social baseline theory
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what does it believe
as humans, our baseline state is to be in contact with other people
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there is no such thing as what
a single human brain
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why
there is always interaction with others
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the brain is _________ because _________
relational, it is primed for relationships
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what if relationships are not available
the sense of self is diminished and there are negative consequences
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what is an example of how the brain is primed for relationship
face processing in babies
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the infant is born with visual limitations, what is there vision when born
20/400
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why is this
nerve cells in the retina and brain that control vision are not completely developed
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in the first week babies can only see things that are how close to their face
8-12 inches
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what is this distance
how close the mothers face is when they hold their babies to feed them
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although their vision is poor, within the first few minutes...
infants track faces of natural arrangements rather than scrambled or blank faces
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this gives evidence for what
predisposition for preference of faces
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within the first few days...
infants prefer to look at an image of their mothers face than a strangers face
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within the first few months...
infants prefer natural arrangements of faces and can generalise this information to schematic images
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darwin suggested that infants do not only recognise faces but can also what
produce and understand facial expressions
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who and when gave evidence for infants producing facial expressions
Ganchrow, 1983
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how old were the participants
a few hours
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they produced facial expressions to what
sweet and bitter tastes
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what additional evidence did they find
observers could tell which tastes they were given from expression
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this gives evidence that facial expressions have what function
a communicative function
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who and when studied facial expression recognition further
izard, 1980
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how old were their participants
1-9 months
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what did they do
took images/films of babies doing activities that produced expressions, showed these images to untrained and trained participants
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who did better at recognition
trained, but untrained still did very well
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what is the problem with all of this research
are adults just mapping knowledge of how adults express through their faces onto babies
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what is the answer
putting babies into situations that will elicit corresponding emotions and measuring them
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who and when studied this
hiatt et al, 1979
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what did they find
games produce expressions of happiness
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who else and when studied this
sternberg et al, 1983
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what did they find
removing teething biscuit produced expressions of anger
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how do we know this is not all observational learning
blind babies produce facial expressions
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this is more evidence for what
predisposition of facial expression
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who and when studied if infants understand the meaning of facial expressions
Haviland and lelwica, 1987
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how old were their participants
10 weeks
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what did they ask mothers to do
display happy, sad or angry emotions to their babies
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how did the infants react to happy expressions
matched expression, extended arms and kicked legs
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how did the infants react to sad or angry expressions
turn away and showed distress
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what happened consequently
effect on following behaviour i.e playing
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what tasks study how infants act according to emotions
social referencing tasks
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what one specifically
visual cliffe
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by who and when
source et al, 1985
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they found that if there was no visual cliff but mothers expressed fear then what
the infant crossed anyway
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what is more evidence to suggest infants understanding the meaning of emotional events
seperation anxiety
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how
following separation produces more anxiety
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what other senses are affected by social stimuli
smell and sound
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who and when studied smell
MacFarlan, 1975
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what did they find
infants prefer the smell of their own mothers breast milk
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who and when studied sound
Kisilvesky et al 2009
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what did they find
heart rate was faster when listening to tape of their own mothers and of stranger
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who and when studied sound on a neurological level
Graham et al, 2013
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infants were put into an fMRI scanner whilst what
sleeping
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what was played to them
an audio of their parents arguing
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what happened neurologically
The HPA axis was activated (Stress)
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infants response to emotional stimuli is not only studied but also _____
mothers response
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what three pieces of evidence show this
touch of mothers ****** in the first hour of life increases the time mothers kept infant with them by 100 minutes per day, physical closeness, touching and sucking triggers increase in maternal oxytocin levels and infant smile gives rise to dopamine
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what does it believe

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as humans, our baseline state is to be in contact with other people

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there is no such thing as what

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why

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the brain is _________ because _________

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