Developing fuels keywords

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Exothermic reaction
A reaction that gives out energy from the system to the surroundings, the temperature of the surroundings increases and ΔH is negative.
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Endothermic reaction
A reaction that takes in energy into the system from the surroundings, the temperature of the surroundings decreases, ΔH is positive
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(Standard) Enthalpy change of Combustion (ΔHc)
The enthalpy change when 1 mole of a substance burns completely in oxygen under standard conditions
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(Standard) Enthalpy change of Formation (ΔHf)
The enthalpy change when 1 mole of a substance is formed from its constituent elements, both reactants and products are in their standard states
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(Average) bond enthalpy
The average energy required to break the bonds in 1 mole of gaseous compounds
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Entropy
A measure of the number of ways in which particles can be arranged
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Catalyst
A substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction but can be recovered chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction
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Catalysis
The increase in the rate of a chemical reaction of two or more reactants due to the participation of a catalyst.
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Catalyst poisen
A substance that reduces the effectiveness of a catalyst in a chemical reaction by adsorbing more strongly to the catalyst surface than the reactant molecules
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Heterogeneous catalyst
A catalyst in a different physical state to the reactants
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Zeolite
A molecular sieve that favours the formation of branched alkanes and cycloalkanes
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Fractional distillation
The separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling points using a fractioning column
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Aliphatic
Hydrocarbons that do not contain a Benzene ring
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Aromatic
Hydrocarbons that contain one or more benzene rings
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Saturated
Hydrocarbons containing no double bonds
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Unsaturated
Hydrocarbons containing one or more double bonds
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Isomerism
Isomers are molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas /arrangement of atoms in space
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Autoignition
The explosion of fuel with a spark plug, causing knocking, reduced engine performance and engine damage
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Octane number
A measure of the tendency of petrol to autoignite
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Oxygenates
Molecules that contain an oxygen atom, they burn more efficiently than Alkanes, producing less Carbon monoxide and are added to petrol to reduce pollution.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A reaction that takes in energy into the system from the surroundings, the temperature of the surroundings decreases, ΔH is positive

Back

Endothermic reaction

Card 3

Front

The enthalpy change when 1 mole of a substance burns completely in oxygen under standard conditions

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The enthalpy change when 1 mole of a substance is formed from its constituent elements, both reactants and products are in their standard states

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The average energy required to break the bonds in 1 mole of gaseous compounds

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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