Biology-B3-Developing Drugs

  • Created by: tonisha_
  • Created on: 29-10-21 19:03
What are drugs?
a substance that alters the way our body behaves
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Some drugs relieve?....
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But others?....
cure the problem
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What are Antibiotics?
a type of medicine that only works in bacteria
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What is a super bug?
a bacteria that is fully resistant
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What is an example of a super bug?
(lives on wounds)
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How bacteria develops resistance?

The bacteria firstly has a what?
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What does this cause?
the bacteria to become resistant
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The what will the medication do?
kill most bacteria
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Apart from what?
the resistant bacteria
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What will the resistant bacteria then do?
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What will this cause?
serious infection
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as small diseases will then become dangerous
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To prevent this:

Dont over what?
overprescribe antibiotics
only give when absolutely necessary
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Dont use for what type of diseases?
viral diseases
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Make sure to finish what?
the entire course
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And dont use unnecessarily for what?
animals /livestock
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What is aspirin?
a painkiller
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What does it reduce?
a fever
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What is it developed from?
a chemical found in the bark of willow trees
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What is Digitalis developed from?
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What is it used to treat?
heart problems
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What is Penicillin?
an antibiotic
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What is it?
a fungus
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What does it treat?
bacterial infections
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When testing drugs there are three things to keep in mind

What is meant by efficacy?
how well the drug works
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What is meant by toxicity?
how harmful it is to our body
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For example?
side effects
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What is meant by dosage?
how much of the drug is needed
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What is another word for this?
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This is about finding the correct what?
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with maximised what?
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and minimised?
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Drug Testing

What is the first stage?
pre clinical
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What is the drug tested on here?
human cells and tissues
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What does this cheaply test?
many substances
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but it doesnt tell us what?
the effect on an entire organ system or organism
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This method mainly tests the what of the drug?
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What is stage 2 of drug testing?
pre clinical
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What is the drug tested on here?
a mammal
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For example?
a mouse of rabbit
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Why are they tested on mammals?
as mammals and humans are similar
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This allows us to see the what of a drug?
efficacy and toxicity
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What is stage three of drug testing?
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Firstly, what is the drug tested on?
a healthy human volunteer
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What type of dose is given in the beginning?
a low dose
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Then what do they do to the dosage?
slowly increase it
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What are the trying to find here?
the max dosage that can be given without any side effects
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Then who is the drug given to?
a human with the illness
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What dosage do they begin with?
a low dosage
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What do they then slowly do?
increase the dosage
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What are they trying to find here?
the optimum dosage
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What is the optimum dosage?

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To ensure the process is what?
fair and valid
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clinical trials are done in two ways?
blind trials

double blind trials
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What is used in a blind trial?
a placebo
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What is a placebo?
similar to the real drug but doesnt do anything
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In a blind trial the patient doesnt what?
doesnt know which drug they are taking
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In a double blind trial, what is used?
a placebo
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Who is aware of which drugs are real or not?

neither the doctors or patients
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What are the results also?
peer reviewed
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This means they are analysed by who?
other scientists
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This all avoids what?
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and what?
false claims
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Some drugs relieve?....



Card 3


But others?....


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Card 4


What are Antibiotics?


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Card 5


What is a super bug?


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