Detente

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What was Detente?
Russians called it razryadka. Russian & American leaders tried to ease the tensions in their relationship during late 1960s & 70s.
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What was the Outer Space Treaty?
A treaty in 1967 that stopped the arms race spreading to outer as it pledged that no nuclear weapons would be placed in space by either superpower.
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What was the 1968 Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty?
A treaty in 1968 that agreed that no superpower would supply or help other states develop nuclear weapons – stopped nuclear weapons engulfing other areas of the world.
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How many more ICBMs did Russia have than America?
500
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When did Nixon become president of the USA and what did he promise?
Became president in 1969. Promised to end war in Vietnam.
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What type of treaty was SALT 1 of 1972?
Anti-ballistic missile treaty that imposed limits on the nuclear capability of USSR & USA. ABM systems were only allowed at 2 sites with 100 missiles each.
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What did both powers agree on in SALT 1?
No further production of strategic ballistic missiles. Submarines carrying nuclear wepons only introduced when stocks of ICBMs became obsolete.
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What did the Helsinki conference do?
Stabilised situation in Europe by agreeing greater co-operation between the superpowers & European allies in terms of trade/fighting international terrorism. Took place in 1975.
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Why were the Helsinki agreement/accords a high point of détente?
Agreed on Human rights (freedom of speech, to move from 1 country to another), security + co-operation. USSR accepted existence of West Germany.
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Why was the significance of Helsinki short lived?
As President Carter complained about Soviet violations of the 1975 Helsinki agreements and criticised the USSR’s poor record on free speech + freedom of movement.
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What were the follow-up meetings after Helsinki?
Belgrade (1977-1978), Madrid (1980-83) & Ottawa (1985)
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What happened in the Apollo-Soyuz mission?
3 US astronauts and 2 Soviet cosmonauts shook hands – seemed that relations were improving-prop
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What was the Kabul revolution?
In April 1978 the Afghan royal family was overthrown & replaced with Mohammed Taraki’s new government, determined ‘to build socialism in Afghanistan’.
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What plunged Afghanistan into a civil war?
Taraki unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate the head of the army (Hafizullah Amin) as he believed Amin was a threat to his position as head of the new government.
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What was the Amin related cause of the Soviet invasion?
Amin assassinated Taraki & began negotiations to form an alliance with the USA. Russian secret police reported Amin as an American spy.
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Who was Babrak kamal?
An Afghani communist whom argued that he had enough popular support to form a new government but needed soviet help to defeat Amin’s military.
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Why did Brezhnev believe that America would allow the invasion?
To avoid war as they had done following the Prague spring.
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What was the USSR concerned would happen to Afghanistan as a result of the war?
It would no longer have reason to make alliances with Russia is it became an Islamic state (not communist) & influenced nearby Soviet republics to do the same.
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Why was the war that followed the Soviet invasion a disaster?
Lasted 10 years, around 1.5 mill dies including 15,000 soviet soldiers.
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What were the first 2 points of the Carter Doctrine?
Carter formed an alliance with China & Israel to support afghan rebels (opposed to Soviet invasion). America’s CIA provided weapons/funds for Mujahideen (Islamic organisation of rebels).
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What were the last 2 points of the Carter Doctrine?
Imposed economic sanctions stopping almost all trade with USSR (i.e. US grain to USSR). Ended diplomatic relations with USSR & US congress refused to ratify SALT II.
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What happened in the boycott of Moscow Olympics?
Carter led 60 countries (incl. China, Malawi, Germany, Zaire) to boycott the games in protest of Afghanistan. US government set up alternative Olympics (Olympic boycott games) in Philadelphia.
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How did the American press ridicule the official Olympic Games?
Named Russia’s Olympic mascot Misha bear as Gulag bear, after Soviet prison camps known as the Gulags
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What did the USSR do in retaliation for the 1980 boycott?
USSR + 14 communist countries refused to go to the 1984 Olympics in LA & held the Friendship games as a communist alternative.
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Card 2

Front

What was the Outer Space Treaty?

Back

A treaty in 1967 that stopped the arms race spreading to outer as it pledged that no nuclear weapons would be placed in space by either superpower.

Card 3

Front

What was the 1968 Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How many more ICBMs did Russia have than America?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When did Nixon become president of the USA and what did he promise?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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