Design Argument

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  • Created by: c.bravery
  • Created on: 13-04-16 11:42
Origins and introduction
Teleological argument -Teleos end or purpose - looks at end results top draw a coinclusion - A posteriori so its based on inductive reasoning - natural beauty, order and purpose could not have come about by chance, there must have been a designer.
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Aquinas - Archer and arrow analogy
He argues from design qua regularity - he argues using the archer and the arrow analogy - he argues that the universe lacks knowledge and needs a guiding hand (God) just like the arrow needs the archer to move - planets couldnt order themselves.
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Paley - Watch maker & eye analogy
Argument is design qua purpose - The parts of a watch fit together perfectly, if one was missing it wouldnt work for its purpose just like the universe - also argued that the eye was made for a purpose - must be an intelligent designer.
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Paley part 2. - Design qua regularity
Uses Newtons law of motion and gravity - the rotation of the planets and the fact that they obey the laws of gravity suggests and intelligent designer as they couldnt have come about by chance - external agent (God) must have imposed order over them
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Hume - Criticises the analogies
Anthropomorphism - Giving God human like attributes, but he is an infinite being (watch maker) - infinite regress, who created the creator? - polymorphism, there must be a team of builders (Gods) like when a team of builders build a house.
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Hume part 2. - Further criticisms
The universe is more organic than mechanical - how can God be omnibenevolent if the universe is so badly designed (pain and suffering) dysteleological argument - earthquakes and disease
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Mill - Further criticises the analogies
the universe is evidence of bad design or dysteleology - due to sufferent God cannot posses the divine attributes - Many animals are createds to kill to survive - suffering of humans wouldnt be part of design
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Mill's Quote
"If the maker of the world can do all that he will, he wills misery and there is no escaping that conclusion"
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Darwin - Natural selection
Evolution happened through natural selection - the species with the strongest characteristics survive to pass on their geenes to the next generation (survival of the fittest) - a big challenge for the design argument.
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Dawkins - Supporting Darwin
Religion is an excuse not to investigate scientifically - religious mentality is an obstacle to humanity and it invites people to leaqve the universe unexplored - the discovery of DNA is an explanation for the existence of humanity (no God?)
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Tennants - Anthropic principle
Evolution is evidence for the existence of God - its a movement towards a goal and this requires Gods guiding hand - religion and science can be brought together.
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Tennants - Aesthetic principle
Beauty cannot be explained by science - Macroscopic(music) and macroscopic(nature) beauty - beauty is not necessary for survival and therefore beauty is evidence for the existence of God.
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Swinburne - Agrees with Tennant
He belives that the universe consists of everythiong necessary for survival and natural laws exist to help human development - the probabily that God exists is greator than the probablity he does not.
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Epicurean Hypothesis
Evolution doesnt require God - at the time of creation the universe consisted particles in random motion - the initial state was chaotic but gradually evolved into an ordered system - it is not a work of a designer.
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General strenghts of the design argument - Theist strengths
argument is cumulative, because the more we investigate nature, the more we see evidendce of complexity, regularity and purpose which requires explanation - it provides an answer for lifes most searching essential question why/how are we here?-theist
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Card 2

Front

He argues from design qua regularity - he argues using the archer and the arrow analogy - he argues that the universe lacks knowledge and needs a guiding hand (God) just like the arrow needs the archer to move - planets couldnt order themselves.

Back

Aquinas - Archer and arrow analogy

Card 3

Front

Argument is design qua purpose - The parts of a watch fit together perfectly, if one was missing it wouldnt work for its purpose just like the universe - also argued that the eye was made for a purpose - must be an intelligent designer.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Uses Newtons law of motion and gravity - the rotation of the planets and the fact that they obey the laws of gravity suggests and intelligent designer as they couldnt have come about by chance - external agent (God) must have imposed order over them

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Anthropomorphism - Giving God human like attributes, but he is an infinite being (watch maker) - infinite regress, who created the creator? - polymorphism, there must be a team of builders (Gods) like when a team of builders build a house.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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