Describe and Evaluate Theories of Hypnosis Flash Cards

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What is Hypnosis
Regarded as 'a level of consciousness' by some as it appears to be a special state of awakeness
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State view - What does Ernest Hilgard (1977) suggest
hypnotic experience happens because of a dissociation of cognitive systems. Levels of thinking we are aware of cause hypnotic experience such as hallucinations
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State view - What is the Hidden Observer
Segment of consciousness awake during hypnotic procedure
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State view - What did Hilgard (73) show in regards to the 'Hidden Observer'
Showed hidden observer by inducing hypnotic deafness to P's but also suggested they should raise a finger when asked if there was part that could hear. Deafness established but finger still raised when asked quesiton. Hidden observer monitoring.
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Evaluation - Rainville et al (97)
Showed hypnotic analgesia produced a reduction relationg to reducing pain without affecting sensory info itself. Provides evidence of idea of dissociation, can generalise outside theory
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Evaluation - What is there an inability to do with state view and why
Falsify; precise markers for an altered state have not yet been discovered, not enough evidence to disporve. Hidden observer can be explained though convetionasl psychology, questions validity
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Evaluation - Druckman and Bjork (94)
Remarkable fears not exclusive to hypnotised subjects. Motivates can demonstrate stamina, strength etc. Helps disprove argument. If D+B true then limits explanatory usefullness of state view, hard to generalise further
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Non State - What does this theory believe
Effects experienced by hypnosis might be explained by psychological process, such as social factors
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Non State - Wagstaff (86), what did he suggest
hypnotic induction does not result in a different state but changes with two process, COMPLAINCE AND BELIEF. P enters social contract with hypnotised and expects to be hypnotised.
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Non-State Orne Spanis (82), what did he suggest
That the situation of being hypnotised has powerful demand chartacteristics
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Non State - Valins (66), non-volitional behavior
Male P's rate images of females. Men given false feedback about heartrate. Being told as they rated photos, men gave higher rating for pictures when told heartrate was higher. Tried to excuse noticing unidentified features.
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Non State - explanation for Valins
P's misinterpreted info, sibsequently trying to provide rational explanation for behavior. In hypnosis, P's explain compliance in terms of being hypnotised believing they are not in control of behavior.
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Evaluation NS - What would we expect if they're compliant
We would expect some of them to admit that they're pretending. However they dont even when appeals are made to their honesty.
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Evaluation NS - Spanos 86, what did he suggest
That subjects fail to admit pretending because they have invested heavily in the role of being hypnotised, causes them to reinterpet experiences
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Evaluation NS - Orne (70) on compliance, what did he have to say
If hypnosis is simply compliance then highly succeptable P's be more compliant. Orne, postcardsm more susceptable clients were not more compliant
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Evalutation NS - key strength?
It attempts to explain rather than describe experience of subject
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

State view - What does Ernest Hilgard (1977) suggest

Back

hypnotic experience happens because of a dissociation of cognitive systems. Levels of thinking we are aware of cause hypnotic experience such as hallucinations

Card 3

Front

State view - What is the Hidden Observer

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

State view - What did Hilgard (73) show in regards to the 'Hidden Observer'

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Evaluation - Rainville et al (97)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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