Derment and Kleitman

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How many participants where there? how many males and how many females?
9 all together , 7 males and 2 females
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how many out of the sample and studied in detail? what were the others used for?
5 were studied in detail the other 4 were to check that similar results could be obtained with other people.
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Where were the particiants from?
Chicago , Usa
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What is useful about having 4 participants to check for similar results?
A good population validity check
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What were the ethical precautions taken in this study?
Confidentiality was protected by using enitials
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How could this study cause psychological harm?
They would have lost a lot of sleep
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What are two features of the sample?
1) They were adults, 7 males 2 females, only 5 were studied in detail. Gender imbalance may suggest procedures in the study. 2) Americans from chicago. as its a biological study they would have been representative of normal healthy humans
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Any unusual features of this sample?
NO, so their brains should be representitive of brains of anyone in the world AND we should be able to work out from the results normal features of sleep
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What method was used in this study? and why?
It is a lab experiment, the environment is artificial and IVs were manipulated by experimentors
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Why could this study be thought of as a correlation study?
Because co-variables that were not necessarily manipulated in the study were correlated to check for a relationship
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What is the location of this study?
A sleep lab in chicago
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What are the THREE independent variables in this study?
1)whether they were woken in REM sleep of whether they were woken in non remsleep 2)whether they were woken after 5 mins of remsleep or whether they were woken after 15 mins of remsleep 3)woken aftervertical eye movs,horizontal, mixed, or no eye movs
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What are the dependant variables in this study?
data on dream recall(yes/no) data on dream duration ( 5mins/15mins) data on dream content
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What are the co variables in the correlation studies?
1) number of dreams forgotten/duration of sleep 2) time spent in REM sleep/ number of words in dream descriptions
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What was the quantitative data was recorded?
REM sleep duration, dream duration, number of words in dream description
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What qualititative data was recorded?
Dream content
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what this study snapshot or longitudinal? identify strength and weakness of this
It was a snapshot study: strength quickly see what the recall of each participant was weakness: couldnt tell whether sleep features changed in long term
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What materials were used?
EEG, Electrodes for recording eye movements, door bell, voice recording machine
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What was the finding of the percentage of REM sleep and Non REMsleep patients who could recall their dream?
for REM sleep = 80% and non REM sleep = 7 %
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How many participants were correct when estimating whether a dream was 5 or 15 mins?
For 5 mins= 88% For 15 mins: 78%
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what did up and down eye movements suggest about the dream?
cliffs, ladders, basketball
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what did side to side movements suggest about the dream?
2 people throwing tomotoes
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What was the aim of this study?
To investigate the relationship between REM sleep and dreaming
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Name 3 conclusions that can be drawn from this study
1) almost all dreaming takes place during REM sleep 2) Dream duration reflects REM sleep duration 3) The eye movements seen in REM sleep reflect dream content
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Give an overall statement of the results
Dream could be recalled better in REM sleep than non REM sleep. Dream duration tied in with REM sleep duration, in terms of whether it was 5 or 15 mins. For most people the longer the REM sleep the more detailed the dream descriptions.
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Name an issue of the control in this study
There was a wide variation amongst the participants in relation to recall, would have been better to obtain much more data from many more participants to control for this variability.
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Name 2 good things about the control in this study
1)told not to drink alcoholic drinks or coffee before study= makes sleep more normal so may also make recall more normal. 2)extra participants to check that the results were valid in other participants is a good control
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Whats a good thing about the reliability of this study?
Procedures were highly controlled: no alcohol or caffeine, checking that sleep eye-movements reflect waking ones, so produced consistent results
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Whats a bad thing about the control in this study?
Several procedures had to be abandoned because they werent consistant, such as getting participants to estimate dream length because of the participant variability it would have been better to obtain much more data from many more participants.
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What did the participant have to do when woken up in the sleep of lab?
state whether they had been dreaming or not and if so Speak in to a recording device and recall their dream.
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Name two possible changes you could make to this study..
1) Change the location to the participants homes- so they could sleep more naturally and feel more at ease about recalling dream. 2)Take more measurements from the person; heart rate ad breathing rate, it might tie in with a frightening dream
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Why couldnt derment and kleitman demonstrate a positive correlation between REM sleep duration and number of words used to describe a dream
Because sometimes it is hard to explain dreams, so people may have said less words to describe their dreams even if it was a long dream, the only significant correlation was shown in 3 out of 5 participants
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Describe two weaknesses about the ecological validity in this study
The task asked to do would not often take place in real life(wired to an EEG with a door bell waking them up and then talking into a machine)-increase of anxiety 2)behaviour measured isnt behaviour that would take place in real life:estimating dream
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Describe a strength about the ecological validity of this study
Their intention was to make use of a real life task, he wanted to find out how REM sleep and dreaming are related; not how sleep prodeeds the natrual world. ALSO lab setting was needed due to equipment like EEG
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Describe the a strength of the operationalisation of this study
Derment and Kleitman has simplified dream identification using a cut off point involving the amount of detail efficient
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Describe a strength of the concurrent validity of this study
Derment and Kleitman found that REM sleep patterns during the night tied up with previous research, and that dream recall was better as the night wore on , which also tied up with previous research.
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Describe the problem extraneous variables have in this study
There is a problem of the participants not having the language skills to describe their dreams. This was a serious extraneous varible when they tried to relate REM sleep duration to length of description
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Describe a strength of the population validitity in this study
Derment and Kleitman checked population validity on four extra participants. Also more recent split brain studies show the same finding reported by derment and kleitman
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Discuss the ethics in this study: consent, harm and confidentiality
Consent: almost certainly Harm: some stress through loss of sleep is likely but this is common and they could catch up on other nights Confidentiality: names by initials
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how many out of the sample and studied in detail? what were the others used for?

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5 were studied in detail the other 4 were to check that similar results could be obtained with other people.

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Where were the particiants from?

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What is useful about having 4 participants to check for similar results?

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What were the ethical precautions taken in this study?

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