# Depth Perception.

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What does sensation mean?
Collecting senses from the surrounding.
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What does perception mean?
The brain interpreting data once sensed and given a meaning.
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What does illusion mean?
The brain misinterpreting data that has been sensed. There are visual cues.
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What is a geometric illusion?
That lines are distorted as we get it wrong in our minds.
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Give an example of geometric illusion.
Ponzo Illusion - train tracks.
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What are ambiguous figures?
A picture that can be seem more than one way when you can see one image and then the other - 'flip-flopping.
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Give an example of ambiguous figures.
Necker cube - cube with dot.
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What are fictions?
Illusions that where you see something but is not actually there.
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Give an example of fictions.
Kaniza Triangle.
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What is a shape constancy?
Knowing that even though a shape looks different, it hasn't actually changed.
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What is colour constancy?
Knowing that even though the colour looks different, i hasn't actually changed.
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What is dept perception?
When we look at the environment in a picture is seen 2-D but, with our mind we see it in 3-D.
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What is linear perspective?
As you look at a stretch of motorway, the outside lines of the road and the white lines markings appear smaller as you go along the page (in the distance)
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What is height in plane?
If the image of the object is higher near the horizontal halfway line, the further away that object is.
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What is relative size?
We expect 2 things that is the same size but, our brain perceives them as further away to make them look smaller.
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What is superimposition?
If the image of the object lies across the page over the other one, it is closer to us.
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Objects closer to us appear to be more textured than those in the distance.
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What is the core theory called?
Constructionist theory.
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Is it nature or nurture?
Nurture.
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Is it top-down and bottom-up processing?
Top-down processing.
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What does top-down processing mean?
When the brain sorts out objects it uses what you already know to how we perceive the image.
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Give the 6 key points.
Expectations, past experiences, prior knowledge, culture, motivation and memory: MERRY CHRISTMAS EVERYONE, PACK your PRESENTS.
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What is perceptual set?
A tendency to perceive a scene, situation or object on the basis of what you expect to see.
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Give an example of expectations.
A,13,C
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What is motivation?
What type of mood you are in will affect what you see.
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Give a criticism.
Ignores nature, born with 3-D ability - reduces validity - reductionist.
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Give another criticism.
It isn't ethnocentric as it can be applied to other culture - increases generlisability
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Give a final criticism.
In a crime scene, it would be good to see what other people see and how they perceive the area - useful - valid.
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What was the alternative theory called?
Nativist theory.
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Is it nature or nurture?
NATure. - NATivist
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Is it top-down or bottom-up processing?
Bottom-up processing.
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what does bottom-up processing mean?
Perception is immediate and direct. The eyes see something first.
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What does the theory suggest?
We perceive things that isn't based on misinterpreting or expectations.
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Who did the core study? Date?
Haber and Levin. 2001.
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What was the aim?
To investigate the argument between top-down or bottom-up processing theories.
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What was the participant sample?
9 male college students, USA, New York.
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What was the research method?
Field experiment.
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What was the design?
Repeated measured design.
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What was the procedure?
They were tested on good eye sight first and then, driven into the 1st section 3 at time. The 2nd was full of real life and fixed size object: milk and door. The 3rd was full of real life and non-fixed size objects: tree, bear. The 4th not real life.
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Give the results.
Most accurate: 1st. Worst accurate: 4th.
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give the conclusion.
Easier to estimate the real life and fixed objects as we can use priory knowledge based on their relative size.
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Give a criticism.
Small sample size, only 9 males, not generlisable.
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Give another criticism.
Androcentric, only males and college students, not representative and occupation biased.
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Give a final criticism.
The test isn't realistic because it is in an artificial setting - lacks ecological validity.
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What is the applications called?
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This is a brief image or sound that you see unconsciously that is displayed for a fraction of a second. This message will influence you behaviour and mood. in 1950s Coca Cola, had increased buyed popcorn by 50%, it said 'eat popcorn' on bottle.
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Give two other types of advertising.
Advertising of the brain and use of context of in the brain.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

What does perception mean?

#### Back

The brain interpreting data once sensed and given a meaning.

### Card 3

#### Front

What does illusion mean?

### Card 4

#### Front

What is a geometric illusion?

### Card 5

#### Front

Give an example of geometric illusion.